B.C. Science Probe 8
Student Centre
Web Links
Interactive Quizzes
Teacher Centre

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Unit A: Cells and Systems

Unit B: Fluids

Unit C: Water Systems on Earth

Unit D: Optics

UNIT A - Cells and Systems

Chapter 1: Cells
Section 1.1: Characteristics of Living Things
Living and Non-living Things
A review of the seven characteristics of living things.

Living vs. Non-living
A quiz to determine what is living and what is not.

Section 1.2: Using a Microscope
The Microscope
Describes the parts of a microscope.

Using the Microscope
Detailed instructions on setting up and using a light microscope.

Section 1.3: Plant & Animal Cells
Cells Alive!
Interactive plant, animal, and bacteria cell site that described their organelles.

The Cell Page
Interactive site describing animal and plant cell organelles.

Section 1.4: Comparing Plant & Animal Cells
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
Cell illustrations with hyper-linked labels.

Cell Structure
Interactive animations of the different types of cells: animal and plant; prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and the functions of their organelles.

Section 1.5: Advantages of a Microscope
Electron Microscope
The interactive site details the functions of the electron microscope.

Up Close and Personal With Salt
Tutorial lesson explores seeing salt using: the naked eye, a light microscope, and an electron microscope.

Section 1.6: Parts of Cell seen with Electron Microscope

Electron Microscopy
Grayscale photographs of various cell parts from an electron microscope.

Electron Microscopic Atlas
A large variety of photographs of cells, organelles, and other tissues.

Images From the Microscope
A gallery of microscopic images from optical, digital, and scanning electron microscope sources.

Section 1.7: Cells in their Environment
Biological Molecules, Organs and Systems
An interactive site explores the parts of a cell that interact with their environment.

Cell Biology
Interactive tutorials on cell biology.

Section 1.8: Osmosis
Basic explanation of osmosis and solutions.

Osmosis Simulation
Simulation of osmotic flow in different environments.

Section 1.9: Diffusion & Osmosis
Diffusion and Osmosis
Definitions and explanations of diffusion, osmosis, and membrane transport.

Transport by Simple Diffusion
Detailed description of simple diffusion.

Section 1.10: How Does the Concentration of a Solution Affect Osmosis
Diffusion Animation
Animations of diffusion and osmosis with different solutes.

Section 1.11: Career Profile: Modellers
Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre
Website from McGill University based on Dr. Chang's work.

The Royal Society of Canada
Press release from The Royal Society of Canada outlining some of the work of Dr. Thomas Chang.


Question 8.
What is Dialysis?
Brief discussion and animation of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Medical Encyclopedia
Explanation of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

The Kidney Foundation of Canada (hemodialysis)
Explanation of hemodialysis.

The Kidney Foundation of Canada (peritoneal dialysis)
Explanation of peritoneal dialysis.

National Kidney and Urologic Disease Information Clearinghouse (hemodialysis)
Explanation of hemodialysis.

National Kidney and Urologic Disease Information Clearinghouse (peritoneal dialysis)
Explanation of peritoneal dialysis.

National Kidney Foundation (hemodialysis)
An overview of hemodialysis.

Kidney Patient Guide to Dialysis
Explanation of dialysis with good animations

Chapter 2: Cells and Cell Systems
Section 2.1: Cells & Cell Systems
Basic Anatomy
Site explains some of the tissue and organ systems in the human body.

Human Anatomy Online
Interactive overview of various organ systems.

Section 2.2: Unicellular Organisms
Unicellular Organisms
Guide to unicellular organisms, with a quiz.

Bacterial Cells
Fun exploration of the parts of a bacterial cell.

Life history and ecology of diatoms.

Section 2.3: Need for Cell Division

A detailed look at the stages of cell division.

Why Do Cells Divide?
A look at some of the reasons for cell division.

Section 2.4: Cell Specialization
Cell Specialization
A look at some specialized cells and the tissues they form.

Ask a Scientist
Question and answer about reasons for cell specialization.

Section 2.5: Cell Wars
Cell Wars in Space
NASA site that looks at how our immune system defenders work in space.

Bacteria Cell
Close up view of a bacteria cell and its components.

Section 2.6: Experimenting with Cells
The Genetic Engineering Debate
Website with the process to research and present a debate on genetic engineering, with links to many resources.

Genetically Modified Rice
A BBC story on the pro side of the benefits of new rice strain.

Biotechnology Online
General website with information and resources on both sides of the debate.

Question 19.
Discovering Germs
Explanation of the germ theory of disease.

A Brief History of Bloodletting
Explanation of bloodletting.

History of Microbiology
Discusses some of the early stages of knowledge about microscopic causes of disease.

Hippocratic Method and the Four Humors in Medicine
Describes how disease was viewed in earlier times as caused by an imbalance in the four humors in the human body.

Question 20.
Public Health Agency of Canada, National Advisory Committee on Immunization
Statement on the influenza vaccination for the 2005-2006 season.

Fighting the Flu
A news story from CBC

Canadian Coalitions for Immunization Awareness and Promotion
Information about immunization.

BC Centre for Disease Control
Information about influenza (the flu).

Vancouver Coastal Health
Flu vaccination information.

Influenza Vaccine
Questions and answers on the flu vaccine and influenza from Veterans Affairs Canada.

Flu Vaccine for Kids
Information and recommendations for giving the flu vaccine to children.

It's Your Health
Health Canada website outlining what flu is and the steps to prevent it.

Chapter 3: Human Body Systems
Section 3.1: The Respiratory System
Respiratory System
Detailed diagrams and explanation of the parts of the human respiratory system.

Your Respiratory System
Fun site with information on different body systems, including the respiratory system.

Section 3.2: The Circulatory System
The Heart and the Circulatory System
Detailed site with the history and science of the circulatory system in animals.

Your Heart and Circulatory System
Interactive site with a quiz on the parts of the circulatory system.

Section 3.3: The Excretory System

Excretory System
The garbage collector - your kidney. Facts and links to information on the kidney and excretory system.

Your Urinary System
Fun site with information on different body systems, including the excretory system.  

Section 3.4: The Digestive System

Your Digestive System and How it Works
Detailed site on the digestive system and what controls it.

The Real Deal on the Digestive System
Long explanation and diagrams on what happens to your food once you eat it.

Your Digestive System
Fun site with information on different body systems, including the digestion system.

Section 3.5: Organ Systems Working Together
Organ Systems
General information on the different body systems, and how they work together. 

Endocrine System
Overview with graphics of the human endocrine system. 

Nervous System
Overview with graphics of the human nervous system.  

Section 3.6: Protecting the Body
Immune System
Overview of the human immune system, with graphics.

Human Skin
Site that explains what your skin does.

Section 3.7: Factors that Affect Reaction Time
Test Your Reaction Time
Interactive game to test your reaction time. Works with Netscape or Mozilla.

Hit the Dot
Another game to test your reaction time.

Question 21.
Obesity in Canada
Information website on the problem of Obesity in Canada .

Losing Ground in the Battle of the Bulge
CBC background report on obesity in children and adults.

Canadian Institute for Health Information
An acrobat document about overweight and obesity in Canada (a population health perspective)

Canadian Institute of Health Research
Obesity research in Canada .

Childhood Obesity (article)
A CTV news article about child obesity.

Public Health Agency of Canada
Physical activity guides for children and youth.

uestion 23.
Lyme Disease
Center for Disease Control website on Lyme disease.

BC Ministry of Health
Information on Lyme Disease.

BC Centre for Disease Control - Lyme disease
Information on Lyme disease.

West Nile Virus
Public Health Canada information page on the West Nile Virus in Canada .

BC Centre for Disease Control
Information on West Nile Virus in BC.

BC Ministry of Health - West Nile Virus
Information on West Nile Virus.

Question 30.
Artificial Skin Transplant
Story of how a boy with severe burns had an artificial skin transplant.

Growing Skin Tissue
A scientist is growing skin tissue in the lab to study ways to develop better protection against sun damage.

Skin Substitutes
Information about artificial skin, synthetic skin, and tissue engineering

Tissue culture laboratory, Monash University
Explanations with photos of skin cultures.

Medical Device Link
Explanation of artificial skin and related products.

Question 31.

Circulation and Heart Health
Affects of diet and what you eat on your circulation and heart health.

Benefits of Physical Activity
Tips on how physical activity helps children, adults, seniors, and people with disabilities.

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Information on healthy living, and keeping heart healthy and helping to prevent strokes.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Health information and publications.

UNIT B - Fluids

Chapter 4: The Properties of Fluids
Section 4.1: A Close-Up Look at Fluid Flow
Fire Hydrant Flow Testing
Procedures, equipment, and reasons for flow-testing fire hydrants.

Water Taps
Why we need taps and how they work, at Wikipedia.

Section 4.2: Fluid Flow around Objects
Fluid Flow
Dozens of pictures of fluid flow in many different types of fluids.

Mach and High-Speed Flow
Description of the Mach number and the effect of high-speed flow.

Section 4.3: Viscosity: A Property of Fluids
Blood in Forensic Science
The importance of blood in forensic science, from the Australian National Institute of Forensic Science.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Explains the analysis of bloodstain patterns in detail.

Diagrams of a concave or convex meniscus, at Wikipedia.

Meniscus-Climbing Insects
Amazing photos and videos of insects using the meniscus to propel themselves along the top of the water.

Section 4.4: Inquiry Investigation: Viscosity-From Thick to Thin
Oil Viscosity
The nature of oils and their uses, based on their viscosity.

Viscosity and Flow Rate
Interactive model of the flow rate of various liquids.

Section 4.5: Measuring Matter: Mass, Weight, and Volume
Mass, Weight, and Volume
Interactive experiments illustrate the principles of measuring matter.

Your Weight on Other Worlds
Your weight on other planets and moons and why it's different than it is on Earth.

Section 4.7: Density: Another Property of Fluids
Density, mass, and volume, at Wikipedia, including the densities of many substances from gas to a neutron star.

Density Demonstration
Results of an experiment showing honey, water, vegetable oil, and rubbing alcohol layered in a cylinder.

Section 4.8: Inquiry Investigation: Some Liquids Just Do Not Mix
Oil and Water Don't Mix-Or Do They?
What happens when oil and water meet on a microscopic level.

Oil Spills and Density
How the density of oil and weathering affects the behaviour of oil spills in the ocean.

Section 4.9: Comparing Densities

Icebergs of Newfoundland and Labrador
Interesting facts, frequently asked questions, and many photos of Canadian icebergs.

The construction, demise, and rediscovery of the Titanic.

U.S. National Ice Center
Naval research on Arctic and Antarctic icebergs and glaciers.

Section 4.10: The Ups and Downs of Buoyancy

Buoyancy in Action
An animated model showing the apparent reduction in weight of an object suspended in water.

Experiment with Buoyancy
Experiment similar to Try This: Buoyancy and Gravity Forces activity.

NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Lab
NASA's training lab for space shuttle and Canadarm astronauts.

Section 4.11: How and Why Do Things Float?
How Hot-Air Balloons Work
How Stuff Works site that explains the buoyancy principles in air.

Plimsoll Lines
The history and necessity of Plimsoll Lines, at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich , England .

Section 4.12: How Does Temperature Affect Viscosity and Density?
Amazing Water Trick
Experiment illustrating that you can actually create two layers of water that don't mix.

Black Smokers
Interactive links and activities about natural hot springs .

Black Smokers and Hot Vents
Environmental information related to the oceans and seafloor features, at the Vancouver Aquarium's AquaNews.

Canadian Volcanoes
Information and links about Canadian volcanoes, at the Ministry of Natural Resources Canada.

Does Cold Water Flow Faster than Hot Water?
Interactive demonstration of viscosity or fluid friction.

Question 11.
Motor Oil
Different oil grades and what they mean.

Question 14.

Track Cycling
How handlebars reduce drag and why recumbent bikes aren't allowed in competition.

Science of Cycling: Aerodynamics
A calculator to estimate the Aerodynamic Drag and Propulsive Power of a Bicyclist and many streaming clips.

Chapter 5: The Use of Fluids
Section 5.1: Career Profile: Food Scientist
All About Chocolate: Just for Kids
Everything from growing chocolate to the finished product.

Food Science
Introduction to food science and what a food scientist does.

What Is Food Science?
In-depth discussion of what it means to be a food scientist and the education required.

Careers in Petroleum Engineering
Typical duties and required education, at Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

Fluid Dynamics Solutions
Background on applications of fluid dynamics.

What Is Food Science All About?
The University of Guelph 's page on careers in food science.

Section 5.2: Fluids and the Confederation Bridge
Bering Strait Peace Bridge Project
Wikipedia article with map and links.

The Confederation Bridge
Official Web site of the Confederation Bridge , with descriptions of the how the bridge was constructed, tourist information, and live Web camera footage.

The Confederation Bridge on CBC
CBC archives coverage of the Confederation Bridge .

Extreme Engineering: The Bering Strait Bridge Project
Discovery Channel's feature examines the proposal, its structure, challenges, and benefits.

Petronas Twin Towers
Complete information about the Malaysian towers from height to the number of tonnes of steel they contain, with photographs.

Structural Engineering and the Confederation Bridge
Civil engineering Web site with facts about the Confederation Bridge .

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster
Photos and video clips of the 1940 collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge.

Section 5.3: Inquiry Investigation: How Fluids Handle Pressure
Quantum Simulations Group
Models of materials at the microscopic level, including fluids under pressure.

Section 5.4: Fluids under Pressure
The Evolution of Submarine Design
Summary of the change in design from 1578 to the nuclear submarines of today.

Flow through an Opening
Interactive demonstration illustrating the relationship of water pressure and the depth of the water from the surface.

High Altitude
Wikipedia information on the effects of high altitude on humans.

The High Pressure Physics Group
The research, careers and biographies of a group of collaborative scientists.

The Marvelous Mirs
Information from Ocean Explorer on the Mir I and Mir II three-person deep-sea submersibles.

Under Pressure in a Deep-Sea Submarine
Video clips of deep-sea adventures and a clip of what happens to a Styrofoam cup below 3000 feet, at the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

Section 5.5: Pressure in Confined Fluids
How Brakes Work
Easy-to-understand descriptions and diagrams of how brakes work in a hydraulic system.

How Pumps Work
Types of pumps and how they work, at the BBC's H2G2.

Hydraulic Systems
Simple descriptions and diagrams of how hydraulic machines work.

Jacques Cousteau
Wikipedia article on Jacques Cousteau with links to information on his part in inventing modern SCUBA.

Kinetic Molecular Theory Simulator
Colourful kinetic molecular theory simulation that lets you set your own parameters.

Tire Pressure Gauge
Diagrams of how a tire pressure gauge works, including photos of component parts and animation.

Section 5.6: Inquiry Investigation: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
Boyle's Law
NASA's site has lots of explanations and very colourful diagrams and models.

Boyle's Law Simulator
Sensitive interactive simulation of Boyle's law that graphs your results.

Gay-Lussac's Law
NASA's site includes an animated model illustrating Gay-Lussac's law.

History of Barometers
How pressure and volume are used to determine atmospheric pressure and predict the weather.

History of Thermometers
The invention of the thermometer and how surrounding temperature affects volume in a predictable and quantifiable way.

Section 5.7: Solve a Problem: A Closer Look at Fluid Power
Hopping Cars
Hydraulic lifts used to make cars "hop."

Section 5.8: Fluid Power at Work for Us
How animatronics work to create creatures like the "Spinosaurus" in Jurassic Park III.

Flight Simulators
Various professional and personal flight simulators.

Hydraulic Entertainment
How hydraulics are used in the entertainment business, from special effects to set designs.

Tunnel Boring Machine
Wikipedia's information on the design and operation of a tunnel boring machine.

Aircraft Hydraulics
Examples and simple diagrams of applications of hydraulics systems in aircraft.

Uses of Fluid Power
Photographs and examples from flight simulators to animatronics.

Industrial Uses of Hydraulic Systems
Full-colour component diagram of a vibration unit.

Question 19.
Food Preservation
History, processes, and factors in food preservation.

How Food Preservation Works
Articles on the kinds of processes of preservation.

Chapter 6: Fluids and Living Things
Section 6.1: From Bladders to Ballast: Altering Buoyancy
Buoyancy Compensator
Wikipedia article on a buoyancy compensator and the buoyancy compensating vest used in diving.

How Submarines Work
A good animation and explanation of submarines submerging and rising along with how they are powered and some history of submarines.

MOVE-a Deep-Sea Research Vessel
Information on the MOVE, a remotely operated vehicle for the deepest regions of the sea.

Pied-billed Grebe
Buoyancy clips, audio clips, and links to detailed information about the Pied-billed Grebe.

Section 6.2: Explore an Issue: The Human Impact on Natural Fluid System

The Green Crab on the East Coast
Detailed background information on the green crab on the East Coast.

What Are Invasive Species?
Listing of invasive species of plants and invertebrates, at the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team.

Section 6.3: Pressurized Fluid Systems: Hydraulics
Hydraulic Shovel
Video clip of a working hydraulic shovel.

Shovel Pistons
Video clip showing the shovel pistons of a hydraulic shovel in detail.

The Human Heart
Animated model of the pumping action of the human heart.

ection 6.4: Pressurized Fluid Systems: Pneumatics
How Lungs Work
Animated model of how the lungs inhale, exhale, and exchange gases.

Inhaling and Exhaling
Series of animated diagrams on how the lungs inhale and exhale.

Medical Ventilator
Wikipedia site explaining how a medical ventilator takes the place of the pneumatic system in our lungs.

Wikipedia article complete with diagrams and examples.

Question 15.
Salmon River Restoration Project
Ways to improve habitat for fish and return the Salmon River and its floodplain to the most healthy, naturally-functioning system possible.

Huu-ay-aht Bamfield Eelgrass Stewardship Project
Preserving important marine vegetation.

Ocean News
Protecting endangered species on the menu in B.C. restaurants.

All about Water - Eco Kids
Interactive clickable facts and diagrams about water.

Healing and Protecting Our Sacred Mother Earth
An editorial on the First Nations Drum Web site, accusing modern natives of forgetting their duty to the Earth in search of profit.

Question 16.

Hydraulic Machinery
Pictures, schematics, diagrams, and a glossary on hydraulics.

Question 25.
The whale is a mammal that has adapted to aquatic life. Some whales dive to depths greater than 2000 m, deeper than most submarines can dive. Research how the respiratory system of a whale allows it to perform deep dives despite the enormous pressure of the water.

Blubber, Slumber, and Pressure
Pictures, sounds, and clips about how whales function in the ocean.

All about whales.

UNIT C - Water Systems on Earth

Chapter 7: The Water Cycle
Environment Canada: Fresh Water- Properties of water
Learn about fresh water: the water cycle, rivers and lakes, glaciers, and more.

Section 7.1
Water: Each Drop Counts!
How many days do you think you could survive without a drink of water? When you finally get that drink, could it be the same water the dinosaurs drank? Try the task as an extra challenge.

Section 7.3
Hydrologic Cycle
Visit Environment Canada's website on the water cycle.

Did you know that water sometimes just flows out of the ground? This happens at a spring or an artesian well. Groundwater gives us water to drink, grows our plants, and fill our rivers and lakes. This website also shows photographs of artesian wells.

Section 7.5
This website explains mechanical, chemical, and biological weathering, and includes photographs of weathered rocks.

Section 7.6

Acid Rain - Environment Canada
Turn to Environment Canada's website on acid rain to find out what "acid" actually is. The site includes acid rain case studies. 

Section 7.7
How Sewer Systems and Septic Systems Work.
What happens after you flush the toilet? A look at the inner workings of sewer systems so that you can understand how they handle the billions of litres of wastewater that Canada produces every day!

Sources of Wastewater
Have you ever wondered about how sewage is collected and treated? Check this website to find out.


Question 9.
Types of water wells:
Comparison of Well Types
Discusses the following types of well: drilled, large-diameter dug, large-diameter bored, and well points.

Understanding the Basics of Water Wells
Describes the energy flow that makes a well work.

How a Pump Works
Describes centrifugal and axial flow pumps, with mention of peristaltic and piston types.

Dugouts as water sources:
Surface Water Quality Initiative
Water and watershed management principles for the Prairies, with extensive description of dugouts. 

Question 11.
Protecting British Columbia 's wetland:
A Protection and Preservation Bylaw
Excerpts from the District of North Vancouver Environmental Protection and Preservation Bylaw, dealing with development in and uses of aquatic areas and sloping terrain, and information on permits and enforcement.

Ecological impact of tideland reclamation:
Understanding the Ecological Impact of Tideland Reclamation, part 2
From "Understanding the ecological impact of tideland reclamation: astep towards Integrated Coastal Resources Management", a paper prepared for the International Symposium on Environment-Friendly Restoration of Coastal Reclaimed Tidelands.

Environmental Protection of Wetlands: position statement #4. Government of Western Australia. Environmental Protection Authority, 2004.
Environmental values and functions of wetlands, and principles of environmental protection.

Petition No. 114 - Environmental Impact Assessment for a Proposed Road in Qualicum Beach, British Columbia
Summary: The petitioner expresses concerns about the environmental impact assessment undertaken for the Laburnum/Rupert Ring Road project in Qualicum Beach , British Columbia . The petitioner's main concern is that an identified Sensitive Ecosystem Inventory (SEI) site will be destroyed by the proposed road. The petitioner believes the initial environmental impact assessment neglected to take the SEI into account. 

Question 17.
Types of Water Pollution
Table of pollutants

Water Pollution
Describes kinds of water pollution.

Water Cycle
Describes the water cycle.

The Pollution Problem
General description of how pollution happens and where it comes from.

Chapter 8: Water Features 
Section 8.1 
The Underwater World
This website gives you information and diagrams on trenches, canyons, abyssal plains, and seamounts.

Watershed Management
Did you know that some of the water that flows through Vancouver also flowed through Prince George ? This website shows the history of the Greater Vancouver Watershed and plans for the future.

Section 8.2
What Is a Glacier?
Most people are familiar with rivers. Rivers collect water and allow it to flow downhill. A glacier is a "river" of ice. It flows much more slowly, but it does flow.

Section 8.4
Ocean Planet: Ocean Currents
Ocean waters are constantly on the move. How they move influences climate and living conditions for plants and animals, even on land.

Section 8.5

Visual of Land and Sea Breeze
Check out this animation showing how land and sea breezes develop.

Tracking El Niño
Learn about the effects of El Niño around the world, and what scientists are finding out about this mysterious weather phenomenon.

Section 8.6

Tsunami! - The WWW Tsunami Information Resource
Tsunamis are large water waves, typically generated by seismic activity, that have historically caused significant damage to coastal communities throughout the world.

Pacific Tsunami Museum
Tsunamis have hit the Pacific coast in the past. This website gives pictures and information to promote public education about tsunamis in the Pacific coastal areas.

Section 8.7

What causes high tide and low tide? Why are there two tides each day?
Tides are caused by the moon and Sun, as you can see in this animation. The website also shows how you measure sea level, so that you know how high the tide is.

Nautical Software Inc. - Daily Predictions
Get tide tables for your area! This website gives tide and current predictions for thousands of locations in North and Central America .

Skookumchuck Tidal Rapids
Are you a paddler? Find out background information on the Skookumchuck Tidal Wave (known to paddlers as the Skook), one of the great whitewater features in British Columbia .


Question 13.

Ocean Gyres
Gyres and Eddies - Kissing Cousins of Currents.
Trade-winds, geostrophic flow, Global Conveyor Belt.

"Current Events" - Forces and Pressure on Currents
Coriolis effect, horizontal pressure gradients, Ekman layer, Ekman spiral.

Ocean currents, both surface and deep, where and why they flow, with a description of Ekman's theory and the Coriolis effect.

Question 17.
Fossils and Fossilization
Difference in fossils depending on fluctuations in sea level.

Global warming affects glaciers:
World View of Global Warming
Description and pictures of receding glaciers, showing the change from past to present.

Evidence of Global Warming
Charts and statistics.

Consequences of Global Warming
Predicted consequences and warning signs today.

Early Warning Signs: Glaciers Melting.
From the Union of Concerned Scientists.

In Pictures: How the World is Changing .
Pictures from the BBC of physical signs of environmental change showing past and present extent of glaciers from around the world.

Shrinking Glaciers Evidence of Global Warming
Differences seen by looking at photos from 100 years ago. From the San Francisco Chronicle, December 17, 2004

All About Glaciers
From the National Snow and Ice Data Center . University of Colorado

Glaciers and Glaciation
Professor Stephen A. Nelson.Tulane University . Physical geology course.

Evidence for Glaciation
Illinois State Geological Survey

Contradictory ideas about the Permian extinction.

Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center. Frequently Asked Questions
From Tongass National Forest , Alaska

Glaciation of the Sierra Nevada
History and description.

Chapter 9: Water and Our World
ection 9.1
Exploring the Deep Ocean Floor
The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Explore the many aspects of the ocean, such as hot springs and strange creatures, at this site.

Section 9.2

Oil Rigs and Other Off-shore Structures
You have probably seen TV programs showing how oil rigs are constructed. This website shows a wide variety of rig types and gives the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Section 9.3
Protecting the Marine Environment
The Environmental Response Branch was created to protect the marine environment from oil spills and other hazards.

Section 9.4
BC Tides
At low tide, you can find many marine organisms in the intertidal area. Here's how to find them.

Find out about oceans, their wildlife, and careers in oceanography and marine biology.

Pacific Marine Ecozone
Explore the Pacific Marine ecozone through pictures and information.

Canadian Biodiversity Information Network
This website gives you links to resources to help you learn about the natural world and investigate diversity.

How do Sea Monkeys [brine shrimp] work?
Here is some information about the tiny organisms that live in really, really salty lakes.

Farm salmon debate spills into Canadian Restaurants
A CBC News report, TR

Question 6.
Research the effects that oil spills have on marine organisms.

Effects of Oil spills
Effects of Marine Oil Spills
Impact on coastal activities, habitat, fisheries and mariculture, and biological effects,

Oil Spills
How oil spills happen; impact on wildlife, with information on the Exxon Valdez spill; a list of other major oil spills around the world; and some information on clean up. Includes bibliography.

How Oil Pollution Affects Birds and Other Wildlife
Specific description of physical problems of wildlife affected by oil pollution.

Oil Spills: Effects on the Environment
Causes and effects of oil spills.

B.C. Oil Spills More Rule than Exception
Many more oil spills happen than are ever noticed from land.

Oil Spill Response News
Some information on oil spills in the US and on the Canadian Oiled Wildlife Rescue Academy from Tri-State Bird Rescue & Research, Inc.

Clean Water
The work of the Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) of Environment Canada in response to pollution emergencies.

Question 8.
West Coast Vancouver Island. Aquatic Management Board.
Home page

Region overview.

New projects
Profile: Huu-ay-at First Nations Fisheries Program
Information about Huu-ay-at Fisheries watershed restoration program.

Barkley: Water
Infrastructure projects.

Tofino Water Supply Projects Updated
Projects to alleviate Tofino's water shortage.

Hupacasath Powers Up
Hupacasath First Nation micro-hydro project.

Question 20.
Pesticides and water systems
Water--How Good Is It?
Questions and answers from Environment Canada.

Is Your Drinking Water Safe?
A guide to water testing. Lists and describes possible contaminants.

Pest Management and Water Quality
Agricultural practices.

Pesticides in the Environment
Section 4 of Pesticides: Making the right choice for the protection of health and the environment. Report of the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development. May 2000.  

Should I Get my Well Water Tested?
BC HealthFile #45, June 1995. Questions and answers.

Water and You: In Not-so-Supernatural British Columbia
Waterborne diseases and water safety in British Columbia .

Question 28.
Mariana Trench: oceanography
Description of the trench.

The Deep Sea
General information about the ocean floor.

Question 30.
Canada's forests
Forests and the water system.

UNIT D - Optics

Chapter 10: Sources and Properties of Light
Section 10.1: Light Energy and Its Sources
Bioluminescence Questions and Answers
Ten common questions and answers on bioluminescence.

Canada's national facility for synchrotron light research
Synchrotron produces extremely bright light -- millions of times brighter than the sun. Synchrotron facts, including what is a synchrotron, and how it works.

Let there be light!
A general information site on light and lighting technology.

Section 10.2: Watching Light Travel
Shadow Zones
What happens during different types of lunar eclipses.   

More About Shadows: Umbra And Penumbra
Using the photon theory, this site investigates how the umbra and penumbra are formed.

Section 10.3: Getting in Light's Way
Basic Electromagnetic Wave Properties
The interactive tutorial explores the relationship between frequency, wavelength, and energy, and enables the visitor to adjust the intensity of the radiation and to set the wave into motion.  

Waves and Colour
This tutorial shows properties of electromagnetic waves and their associated colours.

Section 10.4: The Visible Spectrum
Light and Colour
This site provides detailed explanations of light composition, waves, and colour.

The Visible Spectrum
The site explains where the visible spectrum fits within the range of electromagnetic radiation.

Section 10.5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
General Physics, Light/Colour, how X-Rays, CAT scans, Microwave ovens, TVs and LCD displays work.
The site explains how Einstein's work led to these devices, and how they work using different waves. Click on the Einstein picture.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Questions and answers on all types of electromagnetic radiation.

Section 10.6: Solar Panels
How Solar Cells Work
A lesson on solar cells explaining how the sun's energy is converted into electricity.

Spray-On Solar-Power Cells
Scientists have invented a plastic solar cell that can turn the sun's power into electrical energy, even on a cloudy day.

Question 17.
Windows Today
The site explains one company's development of their low-E window glass.

Low E - How does it work?
The site explains the terminology and facts about low-E glass.

Chapter 11: Mirrors and Lenses
Properties of Light
A general site with information on all aspects of light and reflection.

Section 11.1: Reflecting Light off a Plain Mirror
Reflecting Light
Experiments you can do with reflecting light.

Mystery of Reflection
This site provides explanations and diagrams of different types of reflection.

Critical Angles
When we talk about critical angles, we are talking about something called Total Internal Reflection (TIR). The site explains what TIR is.

Section 11.2: Reflecting Light off Surfaces
Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection
The behaviour of light is often studied by observing its reflection off of plane (flat) mirrors.

The Law of Reflection
This site has a detailed explanation and an animation showing the Law of Reflection.

Section 11.3: Describing Images
Pin Hole Camera
Try making a device called a pinhole camera as described in this activity.

Image Characteristics
This site provides an explanation of the "virtual image" formation in reflections.

Pinhole Cameras
This site demonstrates how to construct a pinhole camera.

Section 11.4: Viewing Images in a Plane Mirror
Image Formation in Plane Mirrors
The site explains using ray diagrams to examine image formation in mirrors.

What Portion of a Mirror is Required?
Ray diagrams can be used to determine what portion of a plane mirror must be used in order to view an image.

Section 11.5: Curved Mirrors
The Anatomy of a Curved Mirror
The site provides lessons on curved mirrors and their reflections.

Simulated Optics Experiments: Curved Mirror
This Java applet simulates optical experiments on your computer. You can study how a lens will focus a light source or make an image, and how a curved mirror works.

Zooming In On a Light Ray Bouncing Off a Curved Mirror
Scroll down to the animation: Zooming In On a Light Ray Bouncing Off a Curved Mirror. Notice that under high magnification this small section of the curved mirror looks like a straight line. This tells us how we can determine how a light ray is reflected from a curved mirror.

Convex Mirrors
The site describes how convex mirrors reflect light and produce images.

Reflection of Light and Image Formation
Concave mirrors are capable of producing real images (as well as virtual images).

Section 11.6: Using Curved Mirrors
Concave Mirror
This is a simulation of a ray tracing activity to study the nature of the image formed in a concave mirror as the distance of the object from the mirror and the size of the object change.

Hubble is a Reflecting Telescope
This Hubble website provides information on the Hubble Telescope. Hubble works on the same principle as the first reflecting telescope built in the 1600s by Isaac Newton. Light enters the telescope and strikes a concave primary mirror, which acts like a lens to focus the light. The bigger the mirror, the better the image.

Information on the two basic types of telescopes: refractors and reflectors.

Section 11.7: The Refraction of Light
Bending Light
An experiment, where you will first observe the angle of refraction as light passes through water. Next, you will see if a different medium, oil, results in a change in the angle of refraction.

Refraction of Light
Scroll down to the refraction simulator, Figure 3 to look at refraction in action.

Refraction of Light Applet
An applet that shows refraction using a variety of mediums including oil, water, etc.

The World Above the Water as Seen By a Fish
This java applet lets you see the view as seen by your fish, looking up at you.

Section 11.8: Refracting Light in Lenses
Refraction By Lenses
As a ray of light enters a lens, it is refracted; and as the same ray of light exits the lens, it is refracted again. The site is a tutorial on lens refraction.

Thick Lens
This Java applet lets you experiment with the refraction caused by a thick lens.

The Refraction of Light
Read the site on the refraction of light. Click on the Activities link for a list of activities on refraction.

Section 11.9: Investigating Lenses
A list of applets that have you examine different types of lenses and the ray changes for each.

Diverging Lens
This applet shows the rays actions when you move an object in front of a diverging lens.


Question 17.
Lens Combinations
An interactive applet showing the effect of different lens combinations.

The Fresnel Lens
This site describes another type of lens, the Fresnel lens, and how the Fresnel lens works. To bend and focus the rays to form a single, concentrated beam of high intensity light, the catadioptric prisms refract and reflect. With just a 1000 watt bulb, a Fresnel lens can generate a 680,000 candlepower beam visible up to 21 miles out to sea if set high enough.

Chapter 12: Light and Vision
Section 12.1: The Human Eye and a Camera
Virtual Eye Dissection
This site has a dissection of a cow's eye. Not for the squeamish.

Lenses and Vision
An examination of the similarities and differences between a camera and the eye.

Section 12.2: Vision and Vision Problems
Human Vision
A detailed site explaining human vision and the parts of the eye.

Glaucoma Research Foundation
Glaucoma leads to blindness by damaging the optic nerve. Elevated pressure in the eye is a risk factor, but even people with normal pressure can lose vision to glaucoma.

Vision Correction: Taking a Look at What is New   
The U.S. Government site on common vision problems and the solutions available for vision correction.

Section 12.3: Mixing the Colours of Light
Mixing the Colours of Light
Small web page that lets you turn on and off the three primary colours to see what colours you get.

How We See Colour
A very detailed site on how we see colour. It gives an explanation of how the biology evolved, the parts of the brain that see colour, and different theories of colour perception.

Section 12.4: Colour Vision

Colour Test
A short web-based test to show how you can tire out your cones by looking at one strong colour for a long time.

Range Of Colours You Can See
The human visual system can detect the range of light spectrum from about 400 nanometers (violet) to about 700 nanometers (red). Our visual system perceives this range of light wave frequencies as a smoothly varying rainbow of colors.

Section 12.5: Research Scientist

Shift work and melatonin: Characterizing a new cancer-related occupational exposure
Dr. Marilyn Borugian's work, the linking of light late at night with increased risk of cancer, is explained.

Scientist of the Week
The site profiles Valerie L. Thomas, a scientist at NASA, and her invention of the illusion transmitter.

Section 12.6: A Telescope for Every Wave

The World's Largest Optical Telescopes
This site lists all large optical telescopes around the world, and gives information on each of them.

Research Telescopes
An A to Z listing of all research telescopes in the world.

Gemini Telescopes
The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8-meter optical/infrared telescopes located on two of the best sites on our planet for observing the universe.  Together these telescopes can access the entire sky.

Everything in Physics
Learn basic physics concepts of optics through these tutorials

History of Telescopes
The history of telescopes from Galileo to NASA observatories.

Question 17.
Colour on Screen
An interactive applet and explanation of how colour is reproduced on a television.

Principles of Television Colour
The concepts described here will provide the key to the additive color television process.

Question 18.
Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope
The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope is a non-profit organization that operates a world-class 3.6-meter telescope atop Mauna Kea, a dormant Hawaiian volcano rising 4,200 meters above the Pacific Ocean .

Gemini Observatory
The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8-meter optical/infrared telescopes located on two of the best sites on our planet for observing the universe. 


Question 24.
Solar Power Companies in Canada
A directory listing Canadian companies selling solar power solutions in Canada .

ARISE Technologies
ARISE is a Canadian-based public solar technology company, whose goal is to help solar energy become a cost-effective, mainstream energy solution.