What are the big ideas of this book?
For information and resources regarding Citizenship and Identity, visit these sites:
Current events resources/news groups:
CBC News in Review is a subscription series of one hour educational tapes. It has been designed by teachers for an integrated curriculum and is an effective learning tool for Canadian studies, global studies, history, social science, media literacy, English and E.S.L.
The Government of Canada’s Canada News Centre
Canadian Television – News, shows, and sports at the CTV website
Cable News Network (CNN)
For news in French, visit
For more information on Canada’s federal government, visit these sites:
Familiarize yourself with the Role and Responsibilities of Canada’s Governor General.
The Constitutional History website is currently unavailable.
How effectively does Canada’s federal political system govern Canada for all Canadians?
The Canadian Heritage – Canadians and their Government resource guide gives a comprehensive explanation of how Canada continues to develop as a democratic country.
How Canadians Govern Themselves by Senator Eugene Forsey helps students understand the Canadian system of government.
A guide to all of Canada’s ministers and ministries from 1867 – present can be found at the Library of Parliament - Historical Information Cabinet and Ministry.
What is the structure of Canada’s federal political system?
Read all of Canada’s Constitution Acts from 1867 to 1982, including the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Visit the Government of Canada official website.
What does the executive branch do?
View profiles of Canada’s current cabinet ministers.
Read Canadian editorial cartoons by Graeme MacKay, Editorial Cartoonist at the Hamilton Spectator.
What does the legislative branch do?
Watch Question Period online or download it as a Podcast from the Created by Cable for Canadians (CPAC) website.
Read about the role of a Member of Parliament.
For information on Canada’s electoral process, visit
View senators’ personal web pages at The Senate of Canada
Find and contact your local Member of Parliament.
What does the judicial branch do?
Visit the website of the Supreme Court of Canada.
Access a comprehensive database of all the Supreme Court’s reports, from 1876 to the present, at Judgements of the Supreme Court of Canada.
Read about the Supreme Court of Canada Appointment Process.
Find a summary of the Canadian Judicial System and all its courts at the Supreme Court’s website.
How do laws become laws?
At Making Laws in Canada, view a chart outlining the law-making process.
Read about Canada’s legislative process at The Senate Today.
See a detailed explanation of The Legislative Process from the Government of Canada website.
For information on the Federal Accountability Act, see
Government Watchdog Groups:
Learn about the House of Commons Page Program
To learn more about First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance:
What do lobbyists do?
Look through a database of Lobby Groups in Canada for information and contact details.
Chapter 1 Review
Rubric templates can be found on the TRCD as well as in the Online Teaching Resources section of the website.
How do Canada’s justice system and the youth criminal justice act attempt to treat young offenders fairly and equitably?
Find news, information and backgrounders on developments in Canadian laws and in the justice department at the Department of Justice Canada official website.
This article from the CBC News gives some background information and highlights of the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
Read the Youth Justice Act online.
View the Youth Criminal Justice Act, along with explanatory materials and other information from the Department of Justice.
The link to “Youth and the Criminal Justice System” is currently unavailable.
Read the Criminal Code of Canada online.
What role do Canadian citizens and organizations play in the fairness and equity of the youth justice system?
The Elizabeth Fry Societies of Alberta work with women and teenage girls who are in conflict with the law.
The John Howard Society of Alberta provides crime prevention programs for offenders and their families, ex-offenders, young persons, and the public.
For more information on restorative justice, see
Read an issue paper on Aboriginal Women and the Legal Justice System in Canada, prepared by the Native Women’s Association of Canada.
Alberta’s Aboriginal Justice page provides information on initiatives and programs currently underway in Alberta, as well as other topics of interest regarding Aboriginal justice.
How effectively does Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms protect your individual rights?
Your Guide to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms aims is to increase understanding of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and to heighten awareness of its importance.
Go to the Alberta Debate and Speech Association website for information on and many printable resources for holding debates.
How does the Charter protect individual rights and freedoms?
See b ackground information on The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms from the Department of Canadian Heritage.
Published by the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, the Youth Guide to the Charter is a printable guide for students.
This document on the Indian Act – Bill-C31was issued by the Native Council of Canada to assist unregistered Indians to apply for status under the Indian Act.
Read an annotated timeline of important events in the history of Women’s Rights in Canada.
Learn about the history and development of Women’s Suffrage from the Canadian Encyclopedia.
Read a biography of suffragette Nellie McClung and her quest to get women the vote.
From the CBC Digital Archives, watch a video clip about suffragette Nellie McClung's famous 'mock parliament' of 1914.
The Ukrainian Canadian Congress provides information about the Internment of Ukrainians in Canada.
The Ukrainian Civil Liberties Association is committed to the defence of the civil liberties and human rights of Ukrainians in Canada and elsewhere.
The Alberta Online Encyclopedia has this article about Italian internment in Alberta during and after World War II.
Find information about Japanese internment at this site, part of Canada: A People’s History.
Historica’s website provides this summary of the internment of the Japanese during World War II.
Visit the website of the David Suzuki Foundation. Suzuki, a world-renowned scientist, environmentalist, and broadcaster, was also a victim of Canada’s Japanese internment.
How does the charter affect law making in Canada?
Read the Supreme Court’s Ruling in the case of R. v. Big M Drug Mart.
The Department of Justice website provides information on Canada’s Anti-Terrorism Act.
How does the Charter affect the workplace?
The Alberta Human Rights Commission aims to foster equality and reduce discrimination.
To what extent has Canada affirmed collective rights?
Learn more about Head Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the world's oldest, largest, and best-preserved buffalo jumps.
Read an overview of Aboriginal and Human rights on the website of the Canadian Human Rights Commission.
The CBC News site has this page, devoted to Aboriginal news, culture and art.
What laws recognize the collective rights of First Nations peoples?
Watch video clips about historical events in The Battle for Aboriginal Treaty Rights from the CBC archives.
For more information on the Numbered Treaties:
The Assembly of First Nations is the national organization representing First Nations citizens in Canada.
Watch and listen to television and radio news clips about Residential Schools from the CBC digital archives.
The Native Council of Canada put out this series of informational booklets about the Indian Act and Bill C-31.
What collective rights do official language groups have under the Charter?
View a timeline of important events in the History of Bilingualism in Canada.
Read a government document on Section 23 of the Charter and the Minority Language Education Rights it bestows.
View statistics on Participation in Minority French Language Education from the Official Languages Support Programs Branch.
Read the Supreme Court’s decision in the landmark case of Mahe vs. Alberta.
Read the Manitoba Act of 1870 online.
A brief description of the Manitoba Act can be found at the Canadian Encyclopedia website.
Learn about what the passing of the Manitoba Act and Scrip meant for Métis rights.
Read a short, student-friendly description of Section 35, Constitution Act – the section that recognizes and protects Treaty rights.
The Alberta Online Encyclopedia provides this brief outline of Francophone Education in Alberta.
See a chronology of significant events in the development of Alberta’s Francophone communities and education.
For information on Pierre Trudeau and bilingualism:
What laws recognize the collective rights of the Métis?
Learn about the history of the Métis Betterment Act, enacted by Alberta in 1938.
Since 1928, the Métis Nation of Alberta has existed to advocate on behalf of and meet the needs and aspirations of Métis people in Alberta.
The Métis Settlement General Council is the political and administrative body for the Métis Settlements. It is a pro-active government that helps develop, implement, and distribute programs and services to the eight Alberta settlements.
At the Virtual Museum of Métis History and Culture, find written and audio-visual information about Métis languages, culture, history, and art, as well as a large collection of educational articles and resources.
For information on Louis Riel and the Northwest Resistance:
How well do Canada’s immigration laws and policies respond to immigration issues?
This website provides a printable template for creating storyboards with students.
What criteria does Canada use when accepting immigrants and refugees?
Find out about immigration requirements, categories, procedures, and the points system at Immigrating to Canada.
The Citizenship and Immigration Canada website provides information on all sorts of immigration-related topics, including immigration news items and frequently asked questions.
One Hundred Years of Immigration to Canada is an online audio-visual presentation with text, photos, and music. It outlines the major events and countries of origin of immigrants to Canada in each decade from 1900-2000.
The Canadian Citizenship and Immigration Resource Centre provides information on Canadian immigration and employment services, and offers free immigration assessments from immigration lawyers.
How do provinces influence immigration laws and polices?
Research the Statistics Canada website for current immigration statistics in each province and territory.
To what extent do different economic systems affect quality of life?
Take a look at the differences between Canadian and American Regionalism and what causes them.
See how geography and economy contribute to regional identities in Canada at Dimensions of Canadian Regionalism.
Read an article about the Canadian identity among young people today at Express News from the University of Alberta.
This site traces the History of Canadian Labour with chronologically-ordered summaries, excerpts from primary sources, and audio clips.
Learn about the sectors and industries of the Canadian economy, as defined by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).
Read a summary of the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919.
What role should consumerism play in our economy?
Visit the websites of some consumer organizations:
Adbusters is a not-for-profit, anti-consumerist organization based in Vancouver.
The Media Awareness Network features a comprehensive collection of media education and Internet literacy resources designed specifically for young people.
Read about Tobacco and Marketing, including the portrayal of smoking in the movies, at the youth section of the Health Canada website.
The Canadian Consumer Handbook provides contact information for consumer affairs offices across the country.
The CBC published this article on the closure of the Hershey factory in Smiths Falls, Ontario.
A listing of Consumer Protection Offices across Canada is available through the Consumers Association of Canada website.
File a complaint with the Canadian Broadcasting Standards Council, an organization created by the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB) to administer standards established by its members.
Send an inquiry or complaint to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Council (CRTC), an agency responsible for regulating Canada's broadcasting and telecommunications systems.
What affects the impact of consumerism on the economies of Canada and the U.S.?
For information about consumerism, quality of life and economic relationships between Canada, U.S. and Mexico:
Read background information on Mexico’s Economy at Economy Watch, an economics, business, and finance website.
Mexico’s economic sectors, such as Trade, Agriculture, and Manufacturing, are discussed at this website.
See information and statistics about U.S.-Canada-Mexico trade on this Fact Sheet on Trade and Migration.
This document provides detailed information on Mexico-Canada trade, including a specific section on trade between Mexico and Alberta.
Learn about the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with this backgrounder.
How do decisions about social programs and taxation in Canada and the U.S. attempt to meet the needs of citizens?
The Canadian Economy Online is a guide to the national economy. Check out statistics, a wealth of federal government information, and learn about economic concepts and events.
The Canada Revenue Agency provides comprehensive tax information for individuals and businesses.
This paper discusses social programs in Canada - the federal capacity to influence the setting of nation-wide standards for provincial social programs and subsequent adherence to them.
What values shape the economic policies of political parties on social programs and taxation?
See a list of registered Political Parties in Canada with links to each party’s website.
The Republican National Committee website is the official site of the United States’ Republican Party.
Visit the official site of the Democratic Party in the United States.
This site, by the U.S. State Department, provides news about American Foreign Policy, U.S. Politics, American Life, Democracy, and Science & Health.
Voters in the CBC’s Greatest Canadian contest chose Tommy Douglas as the winner. The site includes short biographies of the top 100 contenders as well as downloadable teaching activities.
How do environmental issues involve political and economic decision making?
Graphing and chart tools:
Gliffy online diagramming software helps you create flowcharts and diagrams.
What political and economic decisions should Canadians make to respond to climate change?
At the Exploratorium’s Global Climate Change Research Explorer, explore scientific data and get a sense of how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions.
Read the Kyoto Protocol online and see information about its goals, mechanisms, and progress.
The Atlas of Canada’s Climate Change Map Series illustrates factors related to climate change. Maps include the locations of Canadian renewable energy sources, concentration of fuel-efficient cars, and temperature maps.
Online mapping tools:
For information on groups that promote environmental awareness:
For information on the Alberta oil sands:
What political and economic decisions should Canadians make to protect biodiversity?
The Redpath Museum of McGill University’s Canadian Biodiversity Website aims to teach us what is at stake, what has been learned, and what we are doing and still need to do.
The Canadian Biodiversity Information Network contains information such as what you can do to protect biodiversity, reference material, biodiversity news, and links to relevant organizations.
The Hinterland Who’s Who series of vignettes was created in the 1960s to educate the public about Canada’s wildlife. Watch video clips, read about wildlife species, and access information about Canada's changing biodiversity.
B–1 Canada’s Constitution
Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982
Constitution Act, 1982
Historica, including the Canadian Encyclopedia
Library and Archives Canada Canadian Confederation website
B–3 Canada’s Federal Political System
B–4 The Electoral Process
B–5 Majority and Minority Governments
B–6 The Supreme Court
B–7 The Federal Accountability Act
B–8 The Criminal Code
Canadian Judicial System – The Court System of Canada
B–11 What Was the Intention of the Youth Criminal
B–11A What Was the Intention of Restorative Justice?
Department of Justice - Restorative Justice
B–12 What Was the Intention of Sentencing Circles?
B–13 Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Youth Guide to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Canada’s Human Rights Program
B–14 Role of Women
Canada’s Equal Pay Coalition
Italian internment in Alberta during and after World War II
Summary of the internment of the Japanese during World War II
B–17 Aboriginal Rights
Timeline of Aboriginal Rights History
CBC News – Aboriginal Canadians
News article: Landmark Ruling Backs Native Self-Determination
Bill C-30: The Specific Claims Tribunal Act
B–18 First Nations & the Indian Act
First Nations self-governance:
Early Aboriginal treaties and relations
Statistics Canada - Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census
B–20 Métis Legislation
The Métis Betterment Act (1938)
Alberta Métis Settlement Legislation
B–21 Residential Schools
B–22 Protocol for First Nations, Métis and Inuit Elders
Alberta Education - First Nations, Métis and Inuit Education
B–25 Immigration History
B–26 Some Immigration Issues, Past and Present
Immigration Issues - Voyage of the St. Louis
B–28 Economic Growth
The CIA’s World Factbook – Canada
The CIA’s World Factbook – United States
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - Canadian economy
B–29 Comparisons between Canadian and
Canada/United States dollar exchange rate lookup
B–31 The Hershey Plant Closure
B–35 Social Safety Net
Tax and Revenue Administration, Alberta Finance and Enterprise
Teacher’s Resources from the CRA: Responsible Citizenship and Canada's Tax System