BEFOrE previewing Text Have students look over the layout on SB pages 62 and 63 and discuss what they notice. What interests them? What makes them curious? What connections can they make to the images? sTrATEGIC rEADING Ell Some English language learners may have had little experience with poetry or figurative language. If necessary, read each poem aloud one stanza at a time. Pause at the end of each stanza to point out and discuss examples of figurative language, such as the simile “bent double, like old beggars under sacks.” What Do You Think? Arrange students in small groups to discuss their responses to the What Do You Think? prompt on SB page 62: “Poetry is nearer to vital truth than history.” What do they think it means? How true is the statement, in their experience? Analyzing Theme As students read each poem silently, invite them to focus on the main ideas that the author is trying to develop. To connect to the What Do You Think? prompt, ask students to uncover the underlying “truth” of the poem. Advise them to reread each poem a second time and jot down key words that illustrate the poet’s purpose for writing. Suggest that students read the marginal notes on SB pages 62 and 63 to give them insight into the themes Owen and Johnson explore. DI TO suppOrT As students think about imagery, some may consider only visual images. This is a common mistake; remind students that imagery can bring any of the five senses into play. Use the following examples from “Dulce et Decorum Est” in a think-aloud to demonstrate. Owen mentions, “... the hoots/Of gas-shells dropping softly behind” to evoke the constant sounds of battle. Later he describes the blood of a wounded soldier that comes “gargling” from his lungs. We visualize the red blood, but hearing the sounds of his suffering evokes an even more realistic and terrible image. DI AFTEr TO suppOrT Prior to discussing the speaker’s voice, have a brainstorming session about the devices that may appear in poems (e.g., metaphors, similes, imagery, personification) and devices that poets use to give their words and phrases impact (e.g., alliteration, assonance, dramatic pause, rhyme, repetition). Record these suggestions for student reference. Alternatively, prepare a handout with these terms and their definitions. 80 responding (SB page 63) DIsCussION QuEsTIONs Analyzing Voice: Read one of these poems aloud and describe the speaker’s voice. Support your response. Have students discuss the speaker’s voice in small groups; assign one of the two poems to each group. Students may describe the voice in both poems as gritty or raw. To support, they may note that, in “Dulce et Decorum Est,” the poet uses alliteration in the line “And watch the white eyes writhing in his face” to stress the intensity of a painful memory. In “And He Said, Fight On,” the poet uses the metaphor of battle to evoke her feeling of standing alone against an enemy force, which creates a defiant, determined voice. Nelson English 10 Teacher’s Resource Unit 1: Conflict NEL