Nelson Higher Education

Higher Education

Reading for Results, 12th Edition

  • Laraine E. Flemming
  • ISBN-10: 1133589960
  • ISBN-13: 9781133589969
  • 784 Pages | Paperback
  • Previous Editions: 2011, 2008, 2005
  • COPYRIGHT: 2014 Published
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About the Product

Fresh and innovative, READING FOR RESULTS 12th EDITION has been heavily revised to reflect the latest research and align even more closely with the Common Core Standards. A new, research-based approach to identifying main ideas shows students how skilled readers use key-word repetition and reference to decide where and how to focus their attention. A host of new textbook selections combined with think-aloud instructions guide students through reading and understanding the discipline-specific patterns that organize textbook writing. Instructors also now enjoy more instructional flexibility than ever before with a new 12-chapter sequence. If it seems appropriate, students can develop their skills solely in paragraphs, moving on to longer selections when they're ready. But if they are up to the challenge, they can move seamlessly back and forth between shorter and longer selections. Up-to-date in both content and research, READING FOR RESULTS 12e retains its step-by-step sequence, clear explanations and lively readings while taking into account the reading theory developed by cognitive scientist Walter Kintsch, who stresses that reading is less about the sentences on the page and more about what the reader brings to and takes away from that page. Available with InfoTrac® Student Collections


  • Vocabulary Checks at the end of every chapter review the words defined in the chapter.

  • Reading Tips throughout the chapters provide brief active-reading strategies that help students apply skills such as making inferences, determining main ideas, and note taking.

  • Check Your Understanding quizzes ask students to recall the key points from the chapter.

  • Check Your Understanding quizzes ask students to recall the key points from the chapter.


"I do emphasize what readers and writers do, so including this (From Reader to Writer) is quite appropriate. Students need to see that the process of reading and writing are two sides of the same coin."
— Victor Sandoval, Riverside City College

About the Author

Laraine E. Flemming

After receiving her B.S. at Southern Connecticut State University, where she was certified as a teacher of secondary reading, Laraine Flemming went on to earn an M.A. in English literature at Boston College and a Ph.D. in American literature at the State University of New York in Buffalo. During her career, Flemming has taught students from elementary to graduate school covering subjects as varied as reading and writing, American literature, time management, speed reading, and study skills. She began writing textbooks while working as Director of the Reading and Writing Center at Dean Junior College. In need of a reading textbook that had lots of exercises combined with genuinely thought-provoking readings, Flemming decided to write her own. You can contact Laraine Flemming by emailing her at or by visiting her website at

Table of Contents

Introducing SQ3R: Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review. S: Survey to Get a General Overview and Make Predictions. Seven Basic Steps in a Survey. Four Goals of a Survey. Ten Questions to Consider During Your Survey. The Importance of Reading Flexibility. Q: Ask and Answer Questions While Reading. Use Opening Lists. Turn Headings into Questions. Form Questions Based on Key Terms. Use Whatever's Available as the Basis for Questions. R-1: Read in Sections or Chunks. For Really Difficult Textbook Assignments, Consider the 10/5 Approach. Vary Your Assignments to Stay Sharp. Write While You Read. E-Books are No Exception. Writing and the Brain. Personal Experience Counts. Match Your Reading Rate to the Material. R-2: Recall Right After Reading. Mentally Recite. Write Out the Answers to Your Questions. Make an Informal Outline. Draw Rough Diagrams and Pictures. Work with a Friend. R-3: Review Right After Completing the Assignment. The Goal of the First Review: See the Big Picture. Pick a Review Method That Suits You and Your Assignment. Work with a Classmate. Whittling Recall Cues Down to Size. Writing While Reading. Putting the Spotlight on Paraphrasing. Pointers on Paraphrasing for Reading. Mining the Web for Background Knowledge. The Web Makes a Difference. Build Background Knowledge Before Reading. Timing Can Make a Big Difference. Be a Savvy Searcher. Step 2 in Evaluating Web Sites. Don't Ignore YouTube. Digging Deeper: Cognitive Learning.
Making the Meanings Automatic. Active Reviews and Memory Pegs. Using Context Clues. Developing Approximate Definitions. Example Clues. Contrast Clues. Restatement Clues. General Knowledge Clues. Context and Meaning. Defining Words From Their Parts. Learning Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes. Combine Forces: Use Context Clues and Word Parts. Learn Word History to Expand Your Knowledge. Connotations and Denotations of Words. Connotation and Context. Changing the Connotation with the Context. Turning to the Dictionary. Getting Down the Basics: Syllable Count, Pronunciation Guide and Parts of Speech. Sorting Through Multiple Meanings. Figurative and Literal Word Meanings. A Personal Note on Web-Based Dictionaries. Digging Deeper: Words on Words. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Using Context Clues. Test 3: Using Context Clues. Test 4: Using Context Clues. Test 5: Word Analysis and Context Clues. Test 6: Word Analysis and Context Clues. Test 7: Word Analysis and Context Clues.
Understanding the Difference Between General and Specific Sentences. Vocabulary Round Up 1. Recognizing Different Levels of General and Specific Sentences. Connecting General and Specific Sentences: Three Common Patterns. Explanatory Pattern 1: Starting Off with the Topic Sentence. Explanatory Pattern 2: Introductory Sentences Set the Stage for the Topic Sentence.
Explanatory Pattern 3: Ending with the Topic Sentence. Vocabulary Round Up 2. Digging Deeper: Defining Culture. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Distinguishing Between General and Specific Sentences. Test 3: Recognizing the Most General Sentence. Test 4: Clarifying General Sentences. Test 5: Locating Topic Sentences. Test 6: Reviewing Chapter 3 Vocabulary.
More on Typical Ways Author Introduce Topic Sentences. When Introductory Sentences Multiply. Doubling Up on Topic Sentences. Reversal Transitions are Clues to Topic Sentences. Introductory Questions can Replace Introductory Sentences. Working with the Writer to Construct the Topic and Main Idea. From Topic to Main Idea Via Repetition and Reference. Vocabulary Round Up. Digging Deeper: Making It in America: The Challenge of Acculturative Stress. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Identifying Topics and Main Ideas. Test 3: Constructing Main Ideas and Recognizing Topic Sentences. Test 4: Reviewing Chapter 4. Vocabulary.
Pattern 1: Opening with the Main Idea. Pattern 2: Ending with the Main Idea. Vocabulary Round Up 1. Pattern 3: Using Reversal Transitions to Introduce Thesis Statements. Pattern 4: Answering a Question with the Thesis Statement. Vocabulary Round Up 2. Digging Deeper: Jury Dodgers Beware!. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Recognizing Thesis Statements. Test 3: Recognizing and Paraphrasing Thesis Statements. Test 4: Recognizing and Paraphrasing Thesis Statements. Test 5: Recognizing and Paraphrasing Thesis Statements.
Test 6: Reviewing Chapter 5 Vocabulary.
The Function of Supporting Details. Supporting Details and Main Ideas. Thinking About Major and Minor Supporting Details. Evaluating the Contribution of Minor Details. Major Details and Category Words in Topic Sentences. Addition Transitions Can Also Be Clues to Major Details.
Why the Last Supporting Detail Sometimes Goes off Track. Concluding Sentences in Paragraphs Play Multiple Roles. Vocabulary Round Up. Digging Deeper: Debating Private Prisons. Test 1: Check Your Understanding. Test 2: Recognizing Supporting Details. Test 3: Identifying Topic Sentences and Supporting Details. Test 4: Distinguishing Between Major and Minor Details. Test 5: Using Category Words as Clues to Major Details. Test 6: Recognizing Supporting Details and Concluding Sentences. Test 7: Reviewing Chapter 6 Vocabulary.
How to Respond to Supporting Details in Longer Readings. Thesis Statements Affect the Location of Supporting Details. Major and Minor Details Revisited. Analyzing Supporting Details Paragraph by Paragraph. Outlining (Informally) Multi-Paragraph Readings. Making an Informal Outline. Guidelines for Informal Outlining. Vocabulary Round Up. Digging Deeper: Is Risk Taking in Our Genes. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Recognizing Thesis Statements and Supporting Details in Longer Readings. Test 3: Recognizing Thesis Statements and Supporting Details in Longer Readings. Test 4: Reviewing Chapter 7 Vocabulary.
How Inferences Work. When Inferences Go Astray and Become Illogical. Connecting Topic. Sentence Pronouns to Their Antecedents. Piecing Together Main Idea Statements. Inferring the Main Idea from Start to Finish. When Should You Think about Inferring the Main Idea?. Vocabulary Round Up 1. Questions for Evaluating Implied Main Ideas. Reviewing Logical and Illogical Inferences . Vocabulary Round Up 2. Vocabulary Round Up 3. Inferring Supporting Details. Inferring the Meanings Appropriate to the Context. Inferring Relationships and Adding Information. Digging Deeper: Jackie Robinson: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Linking Pronouns to Antecedents in Topic Sentences. Test 3: Constructing Topic Sentences. Test 4: Recognizing the Implied Main Idea. Test 5: Recognizing the Implied Main Idea. Test 6: Inferring the Main Idea. Test 7: Inferring the Implied Main Idea. Test 8: Reviewing Chapter 8 Vocabulary.
Inferring the Controlling Main Idea. Drawing the Logical Inference. Checking Your Inference Against the Author's Words. Comparison and Contrast, Then and Now, Question and Answer Patterns. Vocabulary Round Up 1. Inferring Connections Between Paragraphs. Writing Summaries. Summarizing: Paraphrasing with a Difference. Summarizing Longer Readings. Let Purpose and Audience Determine the Details. Vocabulary Round Up 2. Digging Deeper: The Legal Rights for Animals. Test 1: Reviewing the Key Concepts. Test 2: Recognizing the Implied Main Idea. Test 3: Inferring the Implied Main Idea. Test 4: Inferring Connections Between Sentences and Paragraphs. Test 5: Writing a Summary. Test 6: Reviewing Chapter 9 Vocabulary. Test 7: Reviewing Chapter 9 Vocabulary.
It's the Thought That Counts. Pattern 1:Definition. Typical Topic Sentences. Taking Notes on Definition Patterns. Pattern 2: Time Order. Process. Transitional Signals. Transitions That Describe a Process. Typical Topic Sentences. Telltale Visual Aids. Taking Notes on Process Patterns. Vocabulary Round Up 1. Pattern 3: Simple Listing. Typical Topic Sentences. Transitional Signals. Taking Notes on Simple Listing Patterns. Pattern 4: Comparison and Contrast. Transitional Signals. Transitions That Signal Similarity. Transitions That Signal Difference. Typical Topic Sentences. Taking Notes on Comparison and Contrast Patterns
Linking Pattern to Purpose. Pattern 5: Cause and Effect. Transitional Signals. Cause and Effect Transitions. Cause and Effect Verbs. Verbs Frequently Used to Link Cause and Effect. Typical Topic Sentences. Taking Notes on Cause and Effect Patterns. Pattern 6: Classification. Typical Topic Sentences. Frequently Used Words in Classification Topic Sentences. Telltale Visual Aids. Taking Notes on Classification Patterns. Identifying the Primary Pattern. Vocabulary Round Up 2. Digging Deeper: Hormones and Behavior. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Recognizing Primary Patterns. Test 3: Recognizing Primary Patterns. Test 4: Recognizing Primary Patterns. Test 5: Reviewing Chapter 10 Vocabulary.
Combining Patterns in Readings. Taking Notes on Mixed Patterns. Not All Patterns are Equal. Pattern Details Aren't All Equal Either. From Pure to Mixed Patterns in Longer Readings. When Patterns Combine in Longer Readings. Evaluating the Patterns. Inferring the Main Idea. Sifting and Sorting Pattern Elements. Vocabulary Round Up. Digging Deeper: The Development of a Self in Childhood. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Identifying Main Ideas and Patterns of Organization. Test 3: Identifying Main Ideas and Patterns of Organization. Test 4: Reviewing Chapter 11 Vocabulary.
Recognizing the Primary Purpose. Facts and Opinions are Clues to Purpose. Facts. Opinions. Combining Opinions with Facts. When Persuasion is Primary. The Author Takes a Stand. The Title Frequently Takes Sides. Giving Readers an Argument. Conveying a Tone. In Persuasive Writing, the Two Sides Aren't Always Equal. Ten Signs of Informative Writing. Ten Signs of Persuasive Writing. Sound Arguments Need Sound Reasoning. Recognizing Shaky Support. Hasty Generalizations. Irrelevant Evidence. Circular Reasoning. Offering False Alternatives. Making Careless Comparisons. Vocabulary Round Up. Digging Deeper: Critical Thinking and Pseudo-Psychologies Palms, Planets, and Personality. Test 1: Reviewing Key Concepts. Test 2: Identifying Fact, Opinion, or Both. Test 3: Identifying tone. Test 4: Getting to the Point of an Argument. Test 5: Identifying the Author's Point, Purpose, and Tone. Test 6: Locating Errors in Logic. Test 7: Reviewing Chapter 12 Vocabulary.
Reading 1: Communication and Identity. Reading 2: Is Neutralization Necessary?. Reading 3: I Was a Member of the Kung Fu Crew. Reading 4: Memory, Perceptions, and Eye Witness Testimony. Reading 5: Why People Believe Misinformation, Even After It's Corrected.
Reading 6: Forget What You Know About Study Skills. Reading 7: The Rise of Group Think.
Reading 8: Whaddya Have to Do to Get a Kidney Around Here. Reading 9: The Altruistic Personality. Reading 10: Female Soldiers Fight the Brass Ceiling.

New to this edition

  • READING FOR RESULTS 12th edition* introduces a brand new series of textbook templates, or patterns, all of which illustrate several of the most common methods textbook writers in different disciplines use to communicate information to their readers. Matching the templates are think-aloud instructions that model the way skilled readers respond to specific textbook clues about meaning and organization.
  • Also new to this edition is an innovative method for teaching students how to determine what's significant in paragraphs and longer-readings. Using a format of research-based explanations accompanied by marginal annotations, the 12th edition of Reading for Results shows how skilled readers think their way through a text by responding to the different forms of key word repetition and reference writers leave behind for their audience to follow and interpret.
  • The book's concluding section, "Putting It All Together" has been completely revised so that the multi-page readings can be easily integrated into discussions of the earlier chapters. Selected to motivate student interest, the readings cover diverse topics, ranging from a critique of traditional study skills advice to female soldiers determined to take up arms in combat.
  • The concluding selections, a mix of textbook and newspaper readings, are accompanied by three sets of questions, Getting the Gist, Taking a Closer Look and Reading with a Critical Eye. The three-part arrangement is designed to put into practice a basic rule of reading and reading instruction: When the reader's purpose changes so do the questions asked.
  • InfoTrac® Student Collections are specialized databases expertly drawn from the Gale Academic One library. Each InfoTrac® Student Collection enhances the student learning experience in the specific course area related to the product. These specialized databases allow access to hundreds of scholarly and popular publications - all reliable sources - including journals, encyclopedias, and academic reports. Learn more and access at:


All supplements have been updated in coordination with the Main title.
Please see Main title page for new to this edition information.

Instructor Supplements

Instructor's Resource Manual  (ISBN-10: 1133945724 | ISBN-13: 9781133945727)
ExamView®  (ISBN-10: 1133945961 | ISBN-13: 9781133945963)
Aplia, 1 term Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1133962327 | ISBN-13: 9781133962328)
Reading for Thinking  (ISBN-10: 1285430468 | ISBN-13: 9781285430461)

Through a winning combination of easy-to-understand explanations, high-interest readings, and a carefully designed chapter sequence, Laraine Flemming's READING FOR THINKING takes the mystery out of critical reading for developmental students. Following a comprehensive review of essential learning and comprehension strategies such as evaluating websites, identifying main ideas, and using organizational patterns to aid remembering, Flemming shows how critical reading is a natural part of comprehending an author's message. Chapter by chapter, students expand their definition of comprehension to include evaluating a writer's purpose, recognizing tone, separating fact from opinion, and determining the degree of bias, while also learning how to summarize and synthesize different points of view on the same topic. In addition to marginal annotations modeling the skilled reader's response, a host of new readings, a new vocabulary feature, and brand new material about reading on the Web, the eighth edition of READING FOR THINKING expands the use of writing assignments to help students identify the strategies writers use to communicate their ideas to readers effectively.

Reading Keys  (ISBN-10: 1133589952 | ISBN-13: 9781133589952)

READING KEYS – the first in a three-book reading series by Laraine Flemming – offers a comprehensive introduction to reading skills and strategies for introductory readers (levels 6-8), from using context clues to identifying purpose and bias. Clear, accessible explanations present reading concepts without oversimplifying the process of reading comprehension. To ensure students' understanding, reading "keys" or summaries follow the explanations, breaking them down into manageable chunks. Throughout each chapter, a variety of steadily more difficult exercises assess students' understanding of the material and promote improved comprehension and critical-thinking skills. This incremental approach to instruction and assessment makes it easier for beginning readers to absorb and master new information. The Fourth Edition includes new chapters on analyzing arguments and sentence relationships. In addition, there is a greater emphasis on recognizing and understanding verbal clues to meaning, new discussions on how the brain learns and remembers new information, and several new engaging readings.

Student Supplements

LMS Integrated for Aplia, 1 term Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285749405 | ISBN-13: 9781285749402)

One million+ students, one billion answers In just 10 years, more than one billion answers have been submitted through Aplia, the premier online assignment solution. Millions of students use Aplia to better prepare for class and for their exams. Join them today! Know what’s important Aplia assignments mean “no surprises”—with an at-a-glance view of current assignments organized by due date, you always know what’s due, and when. Discover real-world relevance Aplia ties your lessons into real-world applications so you get a bigger, better picture of how you’ll use your education in your future workplace. Master the content Automatic grading and immediate step-by-step feedback helps you master content the right way the first time. Student Testimonial: “I was very engaged; the content in Aplia is useful. The study tools and materials in Aplia most definitely help me feel more prepared. I understood more than I would have otherwise.” - Tia Student, Glendale Community College CTA: Ask your instructor about Aplia for this course.

Aplia, 1 term Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1133962327 | ISBN-13: 9781133962328)

Succeed in your course with 1 semester of access to Aplia's interactive learning system--featuring practice problems with immediate feedback and tools developed specifically for READING FOR RESULTS, 12th Edition, including step-by-step explanations that help you improve your reasoning and skills, interactive assignments that help you understand difficult or counterintuitive concepts, and more. Aplia has already helped more than a million students succeed in college classes.

MindTap English, 1 term (6 months) Instant Access for Flemming's Reading for Results  (ISBN-10: 1285513673 | ISBN-13: 9781285513676)

MindTap English for Flemming's Reading for Results, 12th Edition provides you with the tools you need to better manage your limited time -- you can complete assignments whenever and wherever you are ready to learn with course material specially customized for you by your instructor and streamlined in one proven, easy-to-use interface. With an array of tools and apps -- from note taking to flashcards -- you'll get a true understanding of course concepts, helping you to achieve better grades and setting the groundwork for your future courses.

Reading for Thinking  (ISBN-10: 1285430468 | ISBN-13: 9781285430461)

If you've ever looked at the pages of your textbook and wondered what to underline or take notes on, READING FOR THINKING is the book for you. It shows how to use clues left by the author to determine what's really important in a textbook and what's not. READING FOR THINKING goes way beyond illustrating how to identify the key points of an author's message. It also shows you how to evaluate that message, deciding for yourself if the author's tone matches the reading's context or purpose; or if an argument, which might seem persuasive at first glance, really holds up under a closer inspection.

Reading Keys  (ISBN-10: 1133589952 | ISBN-13: 9781133589952)

READING KEYS provides you with reading skills and strategies that will help increase your performance in all of your college courses. Clear, simple explanations will help you build your reading skills quickly. Reading "keys" or summaries follow the explanations, breaking them down into manageable chunks. Throughout each chapter, the exercises become gradually more difficult to help you build toward better understanding and critical thinking skills. The Fourth Edition offers even more engaging readings, as well as compelling chapters on analyzing arguments and sentence relationships. A complete technology package, including online homework and practice, provides dynamic learning opportunities.