Nelson Higher Education

Higher Education

General, Organic, and Biochemistry: An Applied Approach, 2nd Edition

  • James Armstrong
  • ISBN-10: 1285430239
  • ISBN-13: 9781285430232
  • 736 Pages | Hardcover
  • Previous Editions: 2012
  • COPYRIGHT: 2015 Published
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Overview

About the Product

Focusing on the needs of allied health and nursing majors, this engaging book is ideal for students who have had no prior exposure to chemistry. The author takes the time to explain how to do tasks that students find difficult, rather than just providing terse descriptions. Emphasizing problem-solving techniques without skipping steps and using terms students can grasp, the book takes the most direct path to biomolecules and metabolic processes, provides a wealth of worked examples to help students understand key chemical concepts, includes novel and relevant "Health Notes" in the margins, and weaves biological and medical applications throughout.

Features

  • DESIGNED FOR NURSING AND HEALTH SCIENCES MAJORS. This allied health-focused book takes the most direct path to biomolecules and metabolic processes, includes novel and relevant "Health Notes" in the margins, and weaves biological and medical applications throughout to prepare students for their future careers.

  • EMPHASIS ON PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES. Each Sample Problem is paired with a closely related "Try It Yourself" question. Most sample problems list additional Core Problems that students can do to practice new skills. Steps for solving the conversion problems appear in the margins to guide students through the problem-solving process.

  • FOCUSED ON STUDENT LEARNING. Each chapter begins with a short health-related, 'story type' introduction, followed by numbered sections with learning objectives. Section-ending Core Problems immediately reinforce the section objectives and help students' gauge their knowledge of the content. Key Terms appear in boldface type the first time they are used and are collected at the back of the chapter to facilitate student review.

  • BUILT-IN STUDY GUIDE. End-of-chapter material (keyed to each section) helps students master chapter concepts and problem-solving skills and review for quizzes and tests. Concept Questions encourage students to describe how the ideas in the chapter apply to specific examples, while Summary and Challenge Problems cover all sections and give instructors the opportunity to assign questions at a wide range of levels. Challenge problems are marked with an asterisk and require a greater depth of understanding; many involve concepts from earlier chapters.

  • OWL INTEGRATION. Improve student learning outcomes with OWLv2, the #1 online homework and learning system for chemistry, now with new features and enhanced functionality! Developed by chemistry instructors, OWLv2's reporting and grade book features simplify homework management and track student progress. OWLv2 addresses different student learning styles through tutorials, simulations, visualization exercises, and algorithmically generated homework questions with instant answer-specific feedback. With OWLv2's mastery learning approach, students work at their own pace until they understand each concept/skill. OWL includes MindTap Reader™, an iPad-compatible multimedia eBook. Gen Chemistry, GOB, and Liberal Arts courses include Quick Prep modules to help students learn essential skills.

Reviews

"I chose Armstrong because it was organized around reaction types for the organic chemistry section. I also like the core problems in the middle of the chapters...I am very satisfied." - Janet Maxwell, Angelo State University
— Janet Maxwell

About the Author

James Armstrong

Jim Armstrong attended Harvard University as an undergraduate student and then moved to the West coast for graduate school. Since earning his Master's degree at the University of California at Berkeley, Jim has taught in the California community college system. He has been on the faculty of City College of San Francisco for the past 20 years, during which time he has taught the full range of lower-division chemistry courses, with particular emphasis on the single-term GOB course. Ten years ago, he collaborated with the CCSF biology and nursing departments on an extensive revision of the GOB curriculum, and the success of the course revision led to the writing of this textbook. Besides teaching and writing, Jim enjoys playing piano and trombone, collecting topographic maps, bird watching, and doting on his wonderful twin daughters.

Table of Contents

1. MEASUREMENTS IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE.
1.1 Measuring size: distance, mass, and volume. 1.2 Measurements in science: precision and accuracy. 1.3 Metric units and their relationships. 1.4 Unit conversions and conversion factors. 1.5 Using multiple conversion factors. 1.6 Density, dosage, and other compound units
1.7 Temperature. Connections: Why Do We Struggle Against the Metric System?
2. ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND COMPOUNDS.
2.1 Classifying matter: mixtures, compounds, and elements. 2.2 Atoms and atomic structure.
2.3 Electron shells and valence electrons. 2.4 An introduction to the periodic table. 2.5 Isotopes and atomic weight. 2.6 Moles. 2.7 Compounds, chemical formulas, and moles. Connections: The Elements of Life.
3. CHEMICAL BONDS.
3.1 Covalent bonds and the octet rule. 3.2 Double and triple bonds. 3.3 Electronegativity and polar bonds. 3.4 Naming covalent compounds. 3.5 Ions and ionic compounds. 3.6 Writing formula for ionic compounds. 3.7 Naming ionic compounds. 3.8 Polyatomic ions. 3.9 Recognizing ionic and molecular compounds. Connections: Nitrogen and Oxygen: A Remarkable Partnership.
4. ENERGY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
4.1 Heat and energy. 4.2 The three states of matter. 4.3 The properties of gases. 4.4 Gas law calculations. 4.5 Attractive forces and the physical properties of matter. 4.6 Solutions and the dissolving process. 4.7 Electrolytes and dissociation. Connections: Temperature, Pressure, and Volume in Everyday Life.
5. SOLUTION CONCENTRATION.
5.1 Concentration. 5.2 Solubility. 5.3 The relationship between solubility and molecular structure. 5.4 Molarity. 5.5 Osmosis, dialysis, and tonicity. 5.6 Equivalents. 5.7 Dilution. Connections: Physiological Dehydration.
6. CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
6.1 Physical changes and chemical reactions. 6.2 Chemical equations. 6.3 Mass relationships in a chemical reaction. 6.4 Heats of reaction. 6.5 Combustion reactions and the carbon cycle. 6.6 Reaction rate and activation energy. 6.7 Chemical equilibrium. Connections: Energy from Food.
7. ACIDS AND BASES.
7.1 The self-ionization of water. 7.2 The pH scale. 7.3 Properties of acids. 7.4 Properties of bases. 7.5 Acid-base reactions. 7.6 Amphiprotic molecules and ions. 7.7 Buffers. 7.8 The role of buffers in human physiology. Connections: Consequences of Blood pH Changes.
8. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY.
8.1 Nuclear symbols. 8.2 Writing nuclear equations. 8.3 Energy and nuclear reactions.
8.4 Measuring radiation. 8.5 Radiation sources and shielding. 8.6 Nuclear decay and half-life. 8.7 Nuclear fission and fusion. Connections: Diagnostic Imaging.
9. HYDROCARBONS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC MOLECULES.
9.1 The special properties of carbon. 9.2 Linear alkanes: the foundation of organic chemistry.
9.3 Branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, and isomers. 9.4 Naming branched alkanes: the IUPAC system. 9.5 Functional groups. 9.6 Alkenes and alkynes. 9.7 Cis and trans isomers of alkenes.
9.8 Benzene and aromatic compounds. 9.9 Properties of hydrocarbons. Connections: High-Octane Hydrocarbons.
10. HYDRATION, DEHYDRATION, AND ALCOHOLS.
10.1 The hydration reaction. 10.2 Controlling the product: an introduction to enzymes. 10.3 Naming alcohols. 10.4 The physical properties of alcohols. 10.5 Chirality in organic molecules. 10.6 The dehydration reaction. 10.7 Phenols and thiols. Connections: Alcohols for Drinking – Or Not.
11. CARBONYL COMPOUNDS AND REDOX REACTIONS.
11.1 Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. 11.2 Oxidation and reduction reactions and the carbonyl group. 11.3 The naming and properties of aldehydes and ketones. 11.4 Other oxidation and reduction reactions. 11.5 Carboxylic acids. 11.6 Biological oxidations and reductions: the redox coenzymes. 11.7 Introduction to metabolic pathways. Connections: Fragrances and Flavors.
12. ORGANIC ACIDS AND BASES.
12.1 Reactions of organic acids. 12.2 Decarboxylation reactions. 12.3 Amines. 12.4 Acid-base reactions of amines. 12.5 The physiological behavior of organic acids and bases. Connections: Messing With Your Mind: The Power of Tryptamines.
13. CONDENSATION AND HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS.
13.1 An introduction to condensation reactions: ethers. 13.2 Esterification, amidation, and phosphorylation. 13.3 Condensation polymers. 13.4 Hydrolysis. 13.5 The effect of pH on the products of hydrolysis. 13.6 The ATP cycle. Connections: Common Pain Relievers.
14. PROTEINS.
14.1 Amino acids. 14.2 Peptide bonds and the secondary structure of a protein. 14.3 Side chain interactions and tertiary structure. 14.4 Protein denaturation. 14.5 Enzyme structure and function. 14.6 Sources and metabolism of amino acids. Connections: Enzyme Assays in Medicine.
15. CARBOHYDRATES.
15.1 Monosaccharides. 15.2 Isomeric forms of monosaccharides: anomers and enantiomers.
15.3 Disaccharides and the glycosidic linkage. 15.4 Common disaccharides and polysaccharides. 15.5 Carbohydrate catabolism. Connections: The Importance of Blood Glucose.
16. LIPIDS AND MEMBRANES.
16.1 Fatty acids and triglycerides. 16.2 Chemical reactions of triglycerides. 16.3 Catabolism of fatty acids. 16.4 Glycerophospholipids and cell membranes. 16.5 Concentration gradients and ATP formation. Connections: Brown Adipose Tissue and Uncouplers.
17. NUCLEIC ACIDS, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, AND HEREDITY.
17.1 Nucleotides. 17.2 Structures of nucleic acid. 17.3 DNA replication. 17.4 Transcription and RNA processing. 17.5 Translation and the genetic code. 17.6 The mechanism of protein synthesis. 17.7 Mutations and genetic disorders. Connections: The Human Genome Project and Genetic Screening.
Appendix A Mathematics Supplement.
Appendix B Summary of Organic Functional Groups.
Appendix C Answers to Selected Problems.

New to this edition

  • The #1 online homework and learning system for chemistry, OWLv2, is available for this text-now with new instructor features and enhanced functionality: a Dashboard that consolidates all course materials; easy, intuitive assignment creation and management; ability to preview and select activities/questions for each assignment; new assignment settings and options; improved gradebook; Personalized Study tools to help students focus their time on the key concepts and skills; and MindTap Reader™, a new eBook with apps and embedded video, audio, annotations, and activities. OWLv2 courses for Gen Chem, GOB, and Liberal Arts now include Quick Prep essential skills assignments that can be taken before the semester begins or during the first few weeks, to help students succeed in the course. For this course, OWLv2 also includes new interactive versions of the end-of-chapter questions from the text and new iPad-compatible visualizations, tutorials, and simulations.
  • The chapter on nuclear chemistry (formerly Chapter 16) has been moved to the end of the material on general chemistry, becoming Chapter 8 in the second edition.
  • To streamline the text, the following peripheral topics have been eliminated: heating and cooling curves, the ideal gas law, precipitation reactions, Le Châtelier's principle, mass-energy conversion calculations, bombardment reactions and the production of radioisotopes, Markovnikov's rule, the solubility of organic compounds in organic solvents, the structures and functions of steroids, and anabolic pathways.
  • The sections on biologically important amines and on radioisotopes in medicine have been replaced by new end-of-chapter "Connections" essays covering much of the same material.
  • Coverage of the moles and molar masses has been moved from Chapter 5 to the end of Chapter 2, allowing early exposure to this often-difficult concept.

Supplements

All supplements have been updated in coordination with the Main title.
Please see Main title page for new to this edition information.

Instructor Supplements

Online PowerLecture with ExamView®  (ISBN-10: 1285464109 | ISBN-13: 9781285464107)

Search for this text at login.CENGAGE.com and choose Instructor Companion Site to access these digital resources for this text: 1) PowerPoint® lecture slides by Melanie Harvey and Krista Thomas of Johnson County Community College; 2) Image libraries for figures, photographs, and numbered tables; 3) Instructor's Manual by Simon Bott of University of Houston, Calhoun; 3) Sample chapters from the Student Solutions Manual. 4) List of end-of-chapter questions that you can assign in OWLv2; 5) Cognero® online testing software with questions by Bette Kreua of University of Michigan, Dearborn; 6) Chemistry Multimedia Library of lecture-ready animations, simulations, and movies.

Instructor's Manual with Basic Lab Experiments  (ISBN-10: 1285464117 | ISBN-13: 9781285464114)

The Instructor's Manual provides clear and concise notes on performing each experiment, as well as answers to the Pre- and Post-Lab questions.

Cengage Testing, powered by Cognero® Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285978498 | ISBN-13: 9781285978499)
Student Solutions Manual  (ISBN-10: 1285461770 | ISBN-13: 9781285461779)

This manual features complete, worked-out solutions to all the odd-numbered problems. The solutions are specifically designed to complement the worked examples in the core text.

OWLv2 6-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285460073 | ISBN-13: 9781285460079)

Students can use this ISBN at www.CENGAGEbrain.com to purchase instant access to OWLv2, the #1 online solution for chemistry, now with new features and enhanced functionality. OWLv2 includes powerful course management tools and advanced reporting and grade book features to track student progress. OWLv2 addresses different learning styles through a range of assignment types like algorithmically generated problems with instant answer-specific feedback—and it's easier to use. With OWLv2's mastery learning approach, students work at their own pace until they understand each concept and skill. Each time a student tries a problem, OWLv2 changes the variables to ensure student mastery and help prevent students "gaming" the system. OWLv2 includes MindTap Reader™, a new iPad-compatible multimedia eBook. OWLv2 for Gen Chem, GOB, and Liberal Arts includes Quick Prep essential skills assignments. Visit www.CENGAGE.com/owl to learn more.

OWLv2 24-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 128546009X | ISBN-13: 9781285460093)

Created by teaching chemists, OWLv2 is a powerful online learning system for chemistry with a unique Mastery Learning approach, which allows students to practice at their own pace, receive meaningful feedback and access a variety of learning resources to help them master chemistry and achieve better grades.

OWLv2 with Student Solutions Manual 24-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285844726 | ISBN-13: 9781285844725)

Created by teaching chemists, OWLv2 is a powerful online learning system for chemistry with a unique Mastery Learning approach, which allows students to practice at their own pace, receive meaningful feedback and access a variety of learning resources to help them master chemistry and achieve better grades.

Student Solutions Manual 24-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285461754 | ISBN-13: 9781285461755)

Students can use this ISBN to purchase instant access at www.CENGAGEbrain.com to the eBook for the Student Solutions Manual. This manual features complete, worked-out solutions to all the odd-numbered problems. The solutions are specifically designed to complement the worked examples in the core text in both style and presentation.

Student Supplements

Student Solutions Manual  (ISBN-10: 1285461770 | ISBN-13: 9781285461779)

Containing worked out solutions to all odd-numbered problems in the book, this manual shows you how to approach and solve problems using the same step-by-step explanations found in your textbook examples.

OWLv2 6-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285460073 | ISBN-13: 9781285460079)

If your instructor requires OWLv2 for this course, you can use this ISBN to purchase instant access at www.CENGAGEbrain.com. OWLv2 is the #1 online homework and learning system for chemistry, proven to help you get a better grade in chemistry and available 24/7. OWLv2 has graded tutorials, visual exercises, simulations, and homework questions. You'll get instant answer-specific feedback to help you every step of the way as you master tough chemistry concepts and skills. OWLv2 allows you to learn at your own pace to ensure you've mastered each concept before you move on. OWLv2 includes an iPad-compatible digital textbook available online 24/7, enhanced with apps and embedded video, and activities for a seamless learning experience. To learn more, visit www.CENGAGE.com/owl or talk to your instructor.

OWLv2 24-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 128546009X | ISBN-13: 9781285460093)

Your ticket to better chemistry grades OWLv2 is a proven system to help you succeed. Its Mastery Learning approach allows you to practice at your own pace, receive meaningful feedback and use learning resources to help you achieve better grades. Know what’s important OWLv2 concentrates on what’s most important—understanding chemistry concepts—and its technology lets you work the way that’s best for you Discover the relevance of your lessons Interactive simulations, visualizations, and tutorials integrated smoothly into your lessons. The more you learn, the better prepared you are to solve problems and analyze information – which helps you succeed in exams and in the workplace. Master the content Problems that challenge you to think about the concepts, and a platform that lets you practice what you’ve learned. OWLv2 moves you up the levels from memorization to mastery in a supportive learning environment. Student Testimonial: “I dropped the class first semester due to poor performance on quizzes. There was no OWL offered. This semester I currently have an A and I greatly attest this to OWL.” 1st-Year Student General Chemistry I, University of Dayton CTA: Ask your instructor about OWLv2 for this course. Visit us online: www.cengage.com/OWLv2

OWLv2 with Student Solutions Manual 24-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285844726 | ISBN-13: 9781285844725)

Your ticket to better chemistry grades OWLv2 is a proven system to help you succeed. Its Mastery Learning approach allows you to practice at your own pace, receive meaningful feedback and use learning resources to help you achieve better grades. Know what’s important OWLv2 concentrates on what’s most important—understanding chemistry concepts—and its technology lets you work the way that’s best for you Discover the relevance of your lessons Interactive simulations, visualizations, and tutorials integrated smoothly into your lessons. The more you learn, the better prepared you are to solve problems and analyze information – which helps you succeed in exams and in the workplace. Master the content Problems that challenge you to think about the concepts, and a platform that lets you practice what you’ve learned. OWLv2 moves you up the levels from memorization to mastery in a supportive learning environment. Student Testimonial: “I dropped the class first semester due to poor performance on quizzes. There was no OWL offered. This semester I currently have an A and I greatly attest this to OWL.” 1st-Year Student General Chemistry I, University of Dayton CTA: Ask your instructor about OWLv2 for this course. Visit us online: www.cengage.com/OWLv2

Student Solutions Manual 24-Months Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1285461754 | ISBN-13: 9781285461755)

The eBook for the Student Solutions Manual. Containing worked-out solutions to all odd-numbered problems in the book, this manual illustrates how to approach and solve problems using the same step-by-step explanations found in your textbook examples.