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Perspectives from the Past: Primary Sources in Western Civilizations - From the Medieval Era through Contemporary Times, Volume 2, 7th Edition

  • ISBN-10: 0393418723
  • ISBN-13: 9780393418729
  • 0 Pages | Paperback
  • COPYRIGHT: 2020 Available June 2020
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Overview

About the Product

A rich, relevant collection of primary sources at an exceptional value Perspectives from the Past: Primary Sources in Western Civilizations features a diverse range of primary sources, offering a total of 251 classic and contemporary documents of varying length, as well as images. In this revised Seventh Edition, the documents have been refreshed based on instructor feedback to reflect the materials most widely assigned in the course, and new documents touch on themes of nationalism, ethnicity, and migration. Together, this content makes Perspectives the most student-friendly and relevant reader—at an incredible value.

Features

  • A broad range of primary source documents and images Perspectives from the Past features a well-balanced collection of 251 classic and contemporary primary sources, including longer selections, giving instructors more flexibility to engage their students with textual analysis. These documents range from personal documents such as poems and letters to public documents like treatises and declarations. Together, the sources give voice and texture to the study of Western civilizations. Visual sources in each chapter further challenge students to thoughtfully consider what constitutes a “text.”

  • A newly strengthened emphasis on migration, nationalism, and ethnicity A variety of selections new to the Seventh Edition mirror Western Civilizations’ updated coverage of the dynamism and movement of European people, cultures, and ideas. This new material is especially relevant for instructors who present the developments of Western civilizations in a global, trans-national context.

  • A flexible reader at an exceptional value Designed to be used independently or as a companion text with Western Civilizations or any other text, Perspectives from the Past can be packaged with any Norton text for only an additional $10 net. Depending on the volume, that’s only $0.05 to $0.07 per reading! Furthering the excellent value are the authors’ thoughtful excerpting and pedagogical support materials, including headnotes, footnotes, and study questions.

Table of Contents

Volume 1 includes Chapters 1–16, From the Ancient Near East through the Age of Absolutism ( B.C.E. through 1725)

Volume 2 includes Chapters 10–28, From the Age of Exploration through Contemporary Times (~1300 through the present)

Asterisks indicate new selections.



Contents not yet final and subject to change.



CHAPTER 1: EARLY CIVILIZATIONS

Image: Göbekli Tepe—the “world’s first temple” (c.10,000 B.C.E.)

* Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Urim

* Hymn to Hapy

FROM The Epic of Gilgamesh

FROM The Code of Hammurabi

Letters of Royal Women of the Old Babylonian Period

FROM The Instructions of Ptah-Hotep

FROM The Book of the Dead

* FROM Egyptian Love Poetry



CHAPTER 2: PEOPLES, GODS, AND EMPIRES, 1700–500 B.C.E.

Akhenaten, Hymn to the Aton

FROM The Middle Assyrian Laws

* Herodotus, FROM The Histories: On the Manners and Customs of the Scythians

Image: The Victory Stele of Merneptah (c. 1210 B.C.E.)

* FROM The Babylonian Account of the Great Flood

* Psalm 137, the Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem

FROM The Torah: Laws

FROM The Book of Isaiah: Prophecies



CHAPTER 3: THE CIVILIZATION OF GREECE, 1000–400 B.C.E.

Homer, FROM the Odyssey

Spartan Society and Values

Hippocrates, FROM “On Airs, Waters, and Places”

Herodotus, FROM The Histories: The Second Persian Invasion of Greece

Herodotus, FROM The Histories: Customs of the Persians

Thucydides, FROM The Peloponnesian Wars

Sophocles, FROM Antigone

Aristophanes, FROM Lysistrata

Image: A Vase Depicting a Slave, Perhaps in a Scene from a Greek Play (c. 450 B.C.E.)

Plato, FROM “Apology”



CHAPTER 4: THE GREEK WORLD EXPANDS, 400–150 B.C.E.

Plato, FROM The Republic

Aristotle, FROM Politics

* Arrian, FROM Alexander the Great and the Limits of Conquest Image: Hellenistic Architecture in the Near East (c. 175 C.E.)

Epictetus, FROM The Manual: Stoicism

The Jewish Encounter with Hellenism: The Maccabees’ Rebellion



CHAPTER 5: THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT ROME

FROM The Twelve Tables

Plutarch, FROM Lives

Cicero, FROM On the Laws

FROM Virgil, The Aeneid

Tacitus, FROM Germania

Image: A Mummy from the Time of the Roman Empire (100 C.E.)

* Seneca, “On the Brevity of Life”



CHAPTER 6: THE TRANSFORMATION OF ROME

The Teaching of Jesus According to the Gospel of Matthew

Martyrdom of Perpetua

* Image: TK

St. Augustine, FROM City of God and Confessions

* The Creed and the Canons of the Roman Church St. Benedict, FROM The Rule

Gregory of Tours, FROM History of the Franks



CHAPTER 7: ROME’S THREE HEIRS: 500–950

Image: Mosaics of Justinian and Theodora, Church of San Vitale, Ravenna (c. 500 C.E.)

* FROM The Iconoclastic Council of Constantinople (754) and the Second Council of Nicaea (787) Muhammad, FROM The Qur'an

* Ibn Fadlan, An Arabic View of the Viking Rus’

Bede, FROM A History of the English Church and People

FROM The Anglo-Saxon Translation of the Book of Genesis

Einhard, FROM The Life of Charlemagne



CHAPTER 8: THE EXPANSION OF EUROPE, 950–1100

* Fulcher of Chartres, FROM The Chronicles of the First Crusade Letter of the Princes Addressed to the Roman Plaintiff

Image: Viking Runestone

Anna Comnena, FROM The Alexiad

FROM the Song of Roland

FROM The Anonymous of Mainz: A Hebrew Account of the First Crusade

Ali ibn al-Athir: An Arabic Account of the First Crusade

FROM the Autobiography of Avicenna



CHAPTER 9: THE CONSOLIDATION OF EUROPE, 1100–1250

Heloise, Letter to Abelard

Guibert of Nogent, On the Uprising of the Laon Commune and the Murder of Bishop Gaudry

FROM “The Wife of Orleans”

Hildegard of Bingen, Letter to the Clergy of Mainz

* Image: The Jewish badge

The Magna Carta: The “Great Charter” of 1215

Thomas Aquinas, FROM Summa Theologica



CHAPTER 10: THE MEDIEVAL WORLD, 1250–1350

* Marco Polo, FROM Prologue to The Description of the World

Ibn Battuta, FROM The Travels

Pope Boniface VIII, papal bull Unam Sanctam

Dante Alighieri, FROM The Divine Comedy

Image: The Triumph of Death (c. 1340)

Giovanni Boccaccio, FROM The Decameron



CHAPTER 11: REBIRTH AND UNREST, 1350–1453

Geoffrey Chaucer, FROM The Canterbury Tales: The “Pardoner's Tale”

Christine de Pizan, FROM The Book of the City of Ladies

FROM The Trial of Jeanne d'Arc

* Petrarch, Letter to Homer

Jan Hus, FROM The Church

* Tedaldi, The Siege of Constantinople and the Sultan’s Treaty with the Genose



CHAPTER 12: INNOVATION AND EXPLORATION, 1453–1533

* FROM Vasco da Gama, Round Africa to India, 1497–1498 CE

Christopher Columbus, Letter on His First Voyage

Leonardo da Vinci, FROM The Notebooks

Image: “Death of Moctezuma” from the Florentine Codex

Baldesar Castiglione, FROM The Book of the Courtier

* Image: “Portrait of Pope Leo X and Two Cardinals” (1518)

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, FROM “Oration on the Dignity of Man”

Niccolò Machiavelli, FROM The Prince

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, FROM Ten Colloquies

Sir Thomas More, FROM Utopia



CHAPTER 13: THE AGE OF DISSENT AND DIVISION, 1500–1564

Martin Luther, FROM The Large Catechism, 1530

* Martin Luther, FROM On the Jews and Their Lies

Image: The Wittenberg Altarpiece (1547)

John Calvin, FROM Draft of Ecclesiastical Ordinances, September and October 1541

* John Calvin, FROM Letter to a French Seigneur, 18 October 1548

Saint Ignatius of Loyola, FROM The Spiritual Exercises

Image: Ruben, Miracle of Ignatius Loyola (C.1620)

* Saint Francis Xavier, FROM “Letter from India”

* Image: Woodcut by noblewoman Argula von Grumbach

The Council of Trent



CHAPTER 14: EUROPE IN THE ATLANTIC WORLD, 1550–1660

Image: Florentine Codex, Conquest of Mexico (c. 1555)

Giovanni Michiel, FROM A Venetian Ambassador’s Report on the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

Reginald Scot, FROM Discoverie of Witchcraft

Image: Jacques Callot, The Plundering and Burning of a Village, a Hanging, and Peasants Avenge Themselves (1633)

FROM The Peace of Westphalia

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, FROM “Of Cannibals”

Image: George Gower, The “Armada Portrait” of Queen Elizabeth (c. 1588)

* Elizabeth I, Speech to the Troops at Tilbury

FROM The Religious Peace of Augsburg



CHAPTER 15: EUROPEAN MONARCHIES AND ABSOLUTISM, 1660–1725

Jean Bodin, FROM On Sovereignty

Thomas Mun, FROM England’s Treasure by Forraign Trade

* Louis XIV, Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Thomas Hobbes, FROM Leviathan

Image: Salzburg emigrants

Coffee House Society

John Locke, FROM Two Treatises on Government

Pierre Patel, Palace and Gardens of Versailles (1668)

Adam Smith, FROM The Wealth of Nations

Catherine the Great, FROM Proposals for a New Code of Law



CHAPTER 16: THE NEW SCIENCE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

Nicolaus Copernicus, FROM Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs

Galileo Galilei, FROM The Starry Messenger and The Assayer

Image: William Harvey, On the Circulation of the Blood (1628)

Lady Margaret Cavendish, FROM Observations on Experimental Philosophy

Blaise Pascal, FROM Pensées

René Descartes, FROM Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy

Isaac Newton, FROM Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

* Image: Maria Merian

John Locke, FROM An Essay Concerning Human Understanding



CHAPTER 17: EUROPE AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT

Image: “Engravings of a Printshop” FROM Encyclopedie, Ou Dictionnaire Raisonne Des Sciences, Des Arts et des Metiers (1751–72)

Voltaire, FROM Letters Concerning the English Nation

David Hume, FROM A Treatise of Human Nature

Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, FROM The Spirit of Laws

Cesare, Marchese di Beccaria Bonesana, FROM An Essay on Crimes and Punishments

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, FROM The Social Contract

Image: A Reading in the Salon of MME Geoffrin (1775)

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, FROM Letters of the Right Honourable Lady Mary Wortley Montague

Mendelssohn, “What Is Enlightenment?”

John Rickman, FROM A Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage

Olaudah Equiano, FROM The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African



CHAPTER 18: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

* Arthur Young, FROM Travels in France during the Years 1787, 1788, 1789

Abbé Emmanuel Sieyès, FROM What Is the Third Estate?

National Assembly, FROM Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Society of the Friends of Blacks, “Address to the National Assembly in Favor of the Abolition of the Slave Trade,” February 5, 1790

Image: Tennis Court Oath (1792)

National Convention, FROM Levée en masse Edict

The Haitian Declaration of Independence (1804)

Olympe de Gouges, FROM Declaration of the Rights of Woman

Opposing Views of the Revolution: Edmund Burke and Thomas Paine

* Image: James Gillray, Un petit souper

Al-Jabarti, FROM Chronicle of the French Occupation, 1798

Jakob Walter, Diary of a Napoleonic Foot Soldier, FROM The Code Napoleon

* Napoleon Bonaparte, FROM The Imperial Catechism of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1806-1814



CHAPTER 19: THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND NINETEENTH-CENTURY SOCIETY

Adam Smith, FROM The Wealth of Nations

Rules of a Factory in Berlin

Thomas Malthus, FROM An Essay on the Principle of Population

Image: Power Looms in a British Cotton Factory (1830)

David Ricardo, “On Wages,” FROM On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

Friedrich Engels FROM The Condition of the Working Class in England

Image: A View of Manchester from Kersal Moor (1952)

* Image: George Cruikshank, The Manchester Heroes

Evidence from the Sadler Report (1832)

Robert Owen, FROM A New View of Society

* Charles Fourier, “The Phalanstery”

Image: Crystal Palace (1851)

Anonymous, The Life and History of Captain Swing, the Kent Rick Burner, Written by Himself

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, FROM Manifesto of the Communist Party

Elizabeth Poole Sanford, Woman in Her Social and Domestic Character

* FROM The Women of England, Their Social Duties, and Domestic Habits



CHAPTER 20: THE AGE OF IDEOLOGIES: EUROPE IN THE AFTERMATH OF REVOLUTION, 1815–1848

Mary Wollstonecraft, FROM A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

The Decembrist

Alexis de Tocqueville, FROM Democracy in America

Joseph de Maistre, “Of Monarchy”

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property?

Símon Bolívar, “The Jamaica Letter”

Image: Peter Hasenclever, The Newspaper Reader in the Tavern (1835)

* Benjamin Constant, “Why did the Enlightenment attack Religion?”

John Stuart Mill, FROM On Liberty

* Karl von Rotteck, “Philosophical Law against Historical Institutions” FROM the General History of the World

Francis Place, “The People’s Charter and National Petition”



CHAPTER 21: REVOLUTIONS AND NATION BUILDING, 1848–1871

Johann Gottlieb Fichte, FROM Addresses to the German Nation

Image: Eugène Delacroix, Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826)

Francis Palacky, History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia

Giuseppe Mazzini, FROM Duties of Man

Legal reform in the Ottoman Empire, The Imperial Edict of the Rose Chamber

* Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire

Alexander II, Manifesto Emancipating the Serfs

* Pope Pius IX, FROM “Quanta Cura” (Condemning Current Errors)

Otto von Bismarck, FROM The Memoirs

Ernest Renan, What Is a Nation?



CHAPTER 22: IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM, 1870–1914

Opium Trade: Lin Zexu’s Letter to Queen Victoria

David Livingstone, FROM Cambridge Speech of 1857

Image: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with Slave (1839)

Friedrich Fabri, FROM Does Germany Need Colonies?

Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man's Burden”

Image: Lightening the White Man's Burden (1899)

Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbd al-Qādir, The Siege of Khartoum (1884–85)

* Robert Knox FROM The Races of Men

J. A. Hobson, FROM Imperialism: A Study

Vladimir Lenin, FROM Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism

Edmund D. Morel, FROM The Black Man's Burden



CHAPTER 23: MODERN INDUSTRY AND MASS POLITICS, 1870–1914

Eduard Bernstein, FROM Evolutionary Socialism

Vladimir Lenin, FROM Our Programme

* Otto Krill, FROM Autobiography of a Factory Worker

Peter Kropotkin, FROM “Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Ideal”

Édouard Drumont, FROM Jewish France

* Victoria Woodhull, “Free Love”

Emmeline Pankhurst, FROM Why We Are Militant

Image: The Prevention of Hunger Strikes

Charles Darwin, FROM On the Origin of Species

Image: Man Is But a Worm (1881)

Francis Galton, “Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope and Aims”

Theodor Herzl, FROM The Jewish State

Friedrich Nietzsche, FROM The Genealogy of Morals

Sigmund Freud, FROM Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis



CHAPTER 24: THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The Trench Poets of the First World War: Rupert Brooke, “1914,” and Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et décorum est”

Image: Battle of Verdun (1916)

Press Reports, FROM the Front

Ernst Jünger, FROM The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop on the Western Front

Vera Brittain, FROM Testament of Youth

FROM The Versailles Treaty

Image: War Propaganda



CHAPTER 25: TURMOIL BETWEEN THE WARS

Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, Order Number One, 1 March 1917

Image: October (1927)

Alexandra Kollontai, FROM The Autobiography of a Sexually Emancipated Communist Woman

Daily Life under Stalin

Benito Mussolini, FROM “Born of a Need for Action”

Adolf Hitler, FROM Mein Kampf

George Orwell, FROM The Road to Wigan Pier

* Irmgard Keun, FROM The Artificial Silk Girl

Sigmund Freud, FROM Civilization and Its Discontents



CHAPTER 26: THE SECOND WORLD WAR

The Atlantic Charter and Third World Nationalism: The Atlantic Charter and Ho Chi Minh’s Speech Delivered in the First Days of the Resistance War in South Viet-Nam (November 1945)

Image: Map of Einsatzgruppen Massacres (1941–1942)

FROM Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals

Tadataka Kuribayashi, FROM A Child's Experience, My Experience of the Atomic Bomb

FROM The Charter of the United Nations

Aerial Bombardment

* A Ravensbrück Survivor’s Testimony at the Nuremberg Doctor’s Trial



CHAPTER 27: THE COLD WAR WORLD: GLOBAL POLITICS, ECONOMIC RECOVERY, AND CULTURAL CHANGE

Winston Churchill, FROM “The Sinews of Peace”

Nikita Khrushchev, FROM “On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences”

* Alexander Dubček and the Prague Spring

Image: Student Uprising in Paris (May 1968)

Václav Havel, FROM The Power of the Powerless

Mikhail Gorbachev, FROM "On Restructuring the Party's Personnel Policy"

Simone de Beauvoir, FROM The Second Sex



CHAPTER 28: A WORLD WITHOUT WALLS: GLOBALIZATION AND THE WEST

Mahatma Gandhi, FROM The Essential Writings

Image: Gandhi at Spinning Wheel

Frantz Fanon, FROM The Wretched of the Earth

* Peter Bernenson, “The Forgotten Prisoners”

* Barack Obama, “The Way Ahead,” 2016

* Rex W. Tillerson, “The U.S. and Europe: Strengthening Western Alliances” * Angela Merkel, Speech to the European Parliament, November 2018

The Greek Debt Crisis